| dominance hierarchy ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Dominance hierarchy arises when members of a social group interact, often aggressively, to create a ranking system. In social living groups, members are likely to compete for access to limited resources and mating opportunities. Rather than fight each time they meet, relative relationships are formed between members of the same sex. These repetitive interactions lead to the creation of a social order that is subject to change each time a dominant animal is challenged by a subordinate one.
This manifestation of intrasexual conflict can be observed in one of two systems. The social order can be either egalitarian or despotic. In a linear ranking system (often referred to as a pecking order), every member of the gender is recognized as either dominant or submissive relative to every other member, creating a linear distribution of rank. For example, groups of spotted hyenas and brown hyenas both demonstrate linear dominance. In a despotic system, one member is considered dominant while all others members of the living group are equally submissive. Examples of despotic social systems are found in meerkats, wolves, male gorillas, Neolamprologus pulcher, and African wild dogs.〔Alcock, John. Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005.〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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