| distilled beverage ： ウィキペディア英語版|
A distilled beverage, spirit, liquor, hard liquor or hard alcohol is an alcoholic beverage produced by distillation of a mixture produced from alcoholic fermentation. This process purifies it and removes diluting components like water, for the purpose of increasing its proportion of alcohol content (commonly expressed as alcohol by volume, ABV).〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=distilled spirit - alcoholic beverage )〕 As distilled beverages contain more alcohol they are considered "harder" – in North America, the term ''hard liquor'' is used to distinguish distilled beverages from undistilled ones, which are implicitly weaker.
As examples, this does not include beverages such as beer, wine, and cider, as they are fermented but not distilled. These all have relatively low alcohol content, typically less than 15%. Brandy is a spirit produced by the distillation of wine, and has an ABV over 35%. Other examples of distilled beverages include vodka, gin, rum, whisky, eau de vie (fruit brandy or schnapps), tequila, baijiu, soju, aguardiente, pálinka, cachaça, singani, borovička and slivovitz.
The term spirit refers to a distilled beverage that contains no added sugar and has at least 20% alcohol by volume (ABV).
Distilled beverages bottled with added sugar and added flavorings, such as Grand Marnier, Frangelico, and American schnapps, are known instead as liqueurs. In common usage, the distinction between spirits and liqueurs is widely unknown or ignored; as a consequence, in general, all alcoholic beverages other than beer and wine are referred to as spirits.
Beer and wine, which are not distilled beverages, are limited to a maximum alcohol content of about 20% ABV, as most yeasts cannot reproduce when the concentration of alcohol is above this level; as a consequence, fermentation ceases at that point.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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