Conflict transformation is the process by which conflicts, such as ethnic conflict, are transformed into peaceful outcomes. It differs from conflict resolution and conflict management approaches in that it recognises "that contemporary conflicts require more than the reframing of positions and the identification of win-win outcomes. The very structure of parties and relationships may be embedded in a pattern of conflictual relationships that extend beyond the particular site of conflict. Conflict transformation is therefore a process of engaging with and transforming the relationships, interests, discourses and, if necessary, the very constitution of society that supports the continuation of violent conflict".〔Hugh Miall (2004) (Conflict Transformation: A Multi-Dimensional Task ), Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, p. 4〕
Conflict transformation approaches differ from those of conflict management or conflict resolution.〔(Berghof Glossary, Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution ) on (Berghof Foundation's ) web〕
Whereas conflict transformation involves transforming the relationships that support violence, conflict management approaches seek to merely manage and contain conflict, and conflict resolution approaches seek to move conflict parties away from zero-sum positions towards positive outcomes, often with the help of external actors.〔
Conflict transformation theory and practice are often associated with the academics and practitioners Johan Galtung and John Paul Lederach.
According to Johan Galtung's ''Transcend Method'' conflict transformation theory and practice, and process/es, comprise:〔Johan Galtung: ''The Transcend Method at a glance: a one-page version'' (page 5) in: (''Conflict Transformation by Peacefull Means (the Transcend Method) – Participants'/Trainers' Manual'' ), United Nations 2000 (at (transcend.org ))〕
and are based upon ''basic premises'' inspired by main world religions:〔
According to Berghof Foundation, conflict transformation means:
:: ''A generic, comprehensive term referring to actions and processes seeking to alter the various characteristics and manifestations of violent conflict by addressing the root causes of a particular conflict over the long term. It aims to transform negative destructive conflict into positive constructive conflict and deals with structural, behavioural and attitudinal aspects of conflict. The term refers to both the process and the completion of the process. As such, it incorporates the activities of processes such as conflict prevention and conflict resolution and goes farther than conflict settlement or conflict management.''〔(The Berghof Handbook Glossary ) > (expanded into the Berghof Glossary, Conflict Transformation ) on (Berghof Foundation's ) web〕
According to Institute for Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding (ICP), conflict transformation means:
:: ''Conflict transformation, in contrast to conflict resolution, does not only seek to resolve the contradiction in a conflict setting. It also aims at addressing structural and social root causes by challenging injustices and restauring human relations and it deals with ethnical and value-based dimensions. Conflict transformation is not only an approach or a tool but primarily a mindset. Conflict transformation, according to our 3 Cs approach, needs to be comprehensive, compassionate and creative.〔(''ICP: About Conflict Transformation & Peacebuilding'' ) at ICP web (iicp.ch )〕''
According to Search for Common Ground conflict transformation initiatives are often characterized by longtime horizons and interventions at multiple levels, aimed at changing perceptions and improving communications skills addressing the roots of conflict, including inequality and social injustice.〔SFCG (no date) (Commonly Used Terms ), Search for Common Ground〕
The ''Principles of Conflict Transformation'', by TransConflict, specify further in order to help with defining conflict transformation:
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