The common chimpanzee (''Pan troglodytes''), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape. Colloquially, the common chimpanzee is often called the chimpanzee (or "chimp"), though this term can be used to refer to both species in the genus ''Pan'': the common chimpanzee and the closely related bonobo, formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee. Evidence from fossils and DNA sequencing shows both species of chimpanzees are the sister group to the modern human lineage.
The common chimpanzee is covered in coarse black hair, but has a bare face, fingers, toes, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet. It is considered more robust than the bonobo, weighing between and measuring about 63 to 94 cm (25 to 37 in). Its gestation period is eight months. The infant is weaned at about three years old, but usually maintains a close relationship with its mother for several more years; it reaches puberty at the age of eight to 10, and its lifespan in captivity is about 50 years.
The common chimpanzee lives in groups which range in size from 15 to 150 members, although individuals travel and forage in much smaller groups during the day. The species lives in a male-dominated, strict hierarchy, which means disputes can generally be settled without the need for violence. Nearly all chimpanzee populations have been recorded using tools, modifying sticks, rocks, grass, and leaves and using them for acquiring honey, termites, ants, nuts, and water. The species has also been found creating sharpened sticks to spear Senegal bushbabies out of small holes in trees.
The common chimpanzee is listed on the IUCN Red List as an endangered species. Between 170,000 and 300,000 individuals are estimated across its range in the forests and savannahs of West and Central Africa. The biggest threats to the common chimpanzee are habitat destruction, poaching, and disease.
The common chimpanzee was named ''Simia troglodytes'' by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in 1776; Lorenz Oken moved it to the new genus ''Pan'' in 1816.
The species name ''troglodytes'' is a reference to the Troglodytae (literally "cave-goers"), an African people described by Greco-Roman geographers. Blumenbach first used it in his ''De generis humani varietate nativa liber'' ("() on the natural varieties of the human genus") in 1776,〔p. 37 in Blumenbach, J. F. 1776. De generis hvmani varietate nativa liber. Cvm figvris aeri incisis. – pp. (), 1–100, (), Tab. I-II (1–2 ). Goettingae. (Vandenhoeck).〕〔(AnimalBase species taxon summary for ''troglodytes'' Blumenbach, 1776 described in ''Simia'' ), version 11 June 2011〕
This book was based on his dissertation presented one year before (it had a date 16 Sep 1775 printed on its title page) to the University of Göttingen for internal use only,〔Kroke, ''circa'' 2010. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. Bibliographie seiner Schriften. Göttingen: Universitätsverlag, No. 1 and 2.〕 thus the dissertation did not meet the conditions for published work in the sense of zoological nomenclature.〔Ride, W.D.L. ''et al.'' (eds.) (1999) (Art. 8.1.1. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ), 4th ed., The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, ISBN 0853010064.〕
The English name "chimpanzee" is first recorded in 1738. It is derived from a Tshiluba language term ''kivili-chimpenze'', with a meaning of "mockman" or possibly just "ape".
The colloquialism "chimp" was most likely coined some time in the late 1870s.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=chimp definition | Dictionary.com )〕
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