| bomb disposal ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe. ''Bomb disposal'' is an all-encompassing term to describe the separate, but interrelated functions in the military fields of Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and Improvised Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD), and the public safety roles of Public Safety Bomb Disposal (PSBD) and the Bomb Squad.
"Bomb disposal" does not encompass the remediation of soils polluted with explosive materials.
The first professional civilian bomb squad was established by Sir Vivian Dering Majendie. As a Major in the Royal Artillery, Majendie investigated an explosion on 2 October 1874 in the Regent's Canal, when the barge 'Tilbury', carrying six barrels of petroleum and five tons of gunpowder, blew up, killing the crew and destroying Macclesfield Bridge and cages at nearby London Zoo.
In 1875, he framed The Explosives Act, the first modern legislation for explosives control.〔(' 2 July 1895 )〕 He also pioneered many bomb disposal techniques, including remote methods for the handling and dismantling of explosives.〔 His advice during the Fenian dynamite campaign of 1881-85〔(Armitage, Tom 'Bombing trains is nothing new - it is what 19th-century anarchists did' - The ''New Statesman'' 8 August 2005 )〕 was officially recognised as having contributed to the saving of lives. After Victoria Station was bombed on 26 February 1884 he defused a bomb with a clockwork mechanism which might have gone off at any moment.〔('Death of a Distinguished Officer' - National Library of New Zealand )〕
The New York City Police Department established its first bomb squad in 1903. Known as the "Italian Squad", its primary mission was to deal with dynamite bombs used by the Mafia to intimidate immigrant Italian merchants and residents. It would later be known as the "Anarchist Squad" and the "Radical Squad".
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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