Archery is the the sport, practice or skill of using a bow to propel arrows. The word comes from the Latin ''arcus''. Historically, archery has been used for hunting and combat. In modern times, it is mainly a competitive sport and recreational activity. A person who participates in archery is typically called an ''archer'' or a ''bowman'', and a person who is fond of or an expert at archery is sometimes called a toxophilite.〔The noun "toxophilite", meaning "a lover or devotee of archery, an archer" derives from ''Toxophilus'' by Roger Ascham —"imaginary proper name invented by Ascham, and hence title of his book (1545), intended to mean 'lover of the bow'." "toxophilite, n." ''Oxford English Dictionary''. Second edition, 1989; online version November 2010. ; accessed 10 March 2011. Earlier version first published in ''New English Dictionary'', 1913.〕
(詳細はPaleolithic or early Mesolithic periods. The oldest signs of its use in Europe come from the in the north of Hamburg, Germany and dates from the late Paleolithic, about 10,000–9000 BC. The arrows were made of pine and consisted of a mainshaft and a long fore shaft with a flint point. There are no definite earlier bows; previous pointed shafts are known, but may have been launched by spear-throwers rather than bows. The oldest bows known so far come from the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. Bows eventually replaced the spear-thrower as the predominant means for launching shafted projectiles, on every continent except Australasia, though spear-throwers persisted alongside the bow in parts of the Americas, notably Mexico and among the Inuit.
Bows and arrows have been present in Egyptian culture since its predynastic origins. In the Levant, artifacts that could be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, (c. 12,800–10,300 BP (before present)) onwards. The Khiamian and PPN A shouldered Khiam-points may well be arrowheads.
Classical civilizations, notably the Assyrians, Armenians, Persians, Parthians, Indians, Koreans, Chinese, and Japanese fielded large numbers of archers in their armies. The English longbow proved its worth for the first time in Continental warfare at the Battle of Crécy. In the Americas archery was widespread at European contact.〔Zimmerman, Larry J., 1985 Peoples of Prehistoric South Dakota. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.〕
Archery was highly developed in Asia. The Sanskrit term for archery, dhanurveda, came to refer to martial arts in general. In East Asia, Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea was well known for its regiments of exceptionally skilled archers.〔Book of the Later Han ()"句驪一名貊耳有別種依小水為居因名曰小水貊出好弓所謂貊弓是也"〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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