Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants.〔(Environmental Impact of Aquaculture )〕〔(Aquaculture's growth continuing: improved management techniques can reduce environmental effects of the practice.(UPDATE)." Resource: Engineering & Technology for a Sustainable World 16.5 (2009): 20-22. Gale Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 1 October 2009. )〕 Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Answers - The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions )〕 Broadly speaking, the relation of aquaculture to finfish and shellfish fisheries is analogous to the relation of agriculture to hunting and gathering.〔Klinger, D. H. et al. 2012. Moving beyond the fished or farmed dichotomy. Marine Policy.〕 Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats.
According to the FAO, aquaculture "is understood to mean the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated."〔(Global Aquaculture Production ) Fishery Statistical Collections, FAO, Rome. Retrieved 2 October 2011.〕 The reported output from global aquaculture operations would supply one half of the fish and shellfish that is directly consumed by humans;〔(Half Of Fish Consumed Globally Is Now Raised On Farms, Study Finds ) ''Science Daily'', September 8, 2009.〕 however, there are issues about the reliability of the reported figures.〔 Further, in current aquaculture practice, products from several pounds of wild fish are used to produce one pound of a piscivorous fish like salmon.〔
Particular kinds of aquaculture include fish farming, shrimp farming, oyster farming, mariculture, algaculture (such as seaweed farming), and the cultivation of ornamental fish. Particular methods include aquaponics and integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, both of which integrate fish farming and plant farming.
The indigenous Gunditjmara people in Victoria, Australia, may have raised eels as early as 6000 BC. There is evidence that they developed about of volcanic floodplains in the vicinity of Lake Condah into a complex of channels and dams, and used woven traps to capture eels, and preserve them to eat all year round.〔
(Aborigines may have farmed eels, built huts ) ABC Science News, 13 March 2003.〕〔(Lake Condah Sustainability Project ). Retrieved 18 February 2010.〕
Aquaculture was operating in China circa 2500 BC.〔(【引用サイトリンク】 title= History of Aquaculture )〕 When the waters subsided after river floods, some fishes, mainly carp, were trapped in lakes. Early aquaculturists fed their brood using nymphs and silkworm feces, and ate them. A fortunate genetic mutation of carp led to the emergence of goldfish during the Tang Dynasty.
Japanese cultivated seaweed by providing bamboo poles and, later, nets and oyster shells to serve as anchoring surfaces for spores.
Romans bred fish in ponds and farmed oysters in coastal lagoons before 100 CE.
In central Europe, early Christian monasteries adopted Roman aquacultural practices.〔
Jhingran, V.G., Introduction to aquaculture. 1987, United Nations Development Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research.〕 Aquaculture spread in Europe during the Middle Ages since away from the seacoasts and the big rivers fish had to be salted so they did not rot.〔Salt: A World History Mark Kurlansky〕 Improvements in transportation during the 19th century made fresh fish easily available and inexpensive, even in inland areas, making aquaculture less popular. The 15th Century fishponds of the Trebon Basin in the Czech Republic are maintained as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Fishpond Network in the Trebon Basin )〕
Hawaiians constructed oceanic fish ponds (see Hawaiian aquaculture). A remarkable example is a fish pond dating from at least 1,000 years ago, at Alekoko. Legend says that it was constructed by the mythical Menehune dwarf people.〔Costa-Pierce, B.A., (1987) Aquaculture in ancient Hawaii. Bioscience 37(5):320-331. (web access )〕
In first half of 18th century German Stephan Ludwig Jacobi experimented with external fertilization of brown trouts and salmons. He wrote an article ''"Von der künstlichen Erzeugung der Forellen und Lachse".'' By the latter decades of the 18th Century, oyster farming had begun in estuaries along the Atlantic Coast of North America.
In 1859, Stephen Ainsworth of West Bloomfield, New York, began experiments with brook trout. By 1864, Seth Green had established a commercial fish hatching operation at Caledonia Springs, near Rochester, New York. By 1866, with the involvement of Dr. W. W. Fletcher of Concord, Massachusetts, artificial fish hatcheries were under way in both Canada and the United States.〔Milner, James W. (1874). "The Progress of Fish-culture in the United States". United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries Report of the Commissioner for 1872 and 1873. 535 – 544
Californians harvested wild kelp and attempted to manage supply circa 1900, later labeling it a wartime resource.〔
Peter Neushul, Seaweed for War: California's World War I kelp industry, Technology and Culture 30 (July 1989), 561-583.〕
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