Annexation (Latin ''ad'', to, and ''nexus'', joining) is the political transition of land from the control of one entity to another. In international law it is the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state or the legal process by which a city acquires land. Usually, it is implied that the territory and population being annexed is the smaller, more peripheral, and weaker of the two merging entities, barring physical size. It can also imply a certain measure of coercion, expansionism or unilateralism on the part of the stronger of the merging entities. Because of this, more positive euphemisms like political union/unification or reunification are sometimes seen in discourse. Annexation differs from cession and amalgamation, because unlike cession where territory is given or sold through treaty, or amalgamation (where the authorities of both sides are asked if they agree with the merge), annexation is a unilateral act where territory is seized and held by one state and legitimized via general recognition by the other international bodies (i.e. countries and intergovernmental organisations).
During World War II, the use of annexation deprived whole populations of the safeguards provided by international laws governing military occupations. The authors of the Fourth Geneva Convention made a point of "giving these rules an absolute character", thus making it much more difficult for a state to bypass international law through the use of annexation.〔Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949.(Commentary on Part III : Status and treatment of protected persons #Section III : Occupied territories Art. 47 ) by the ICRC〕
==International law after 1949==
The Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV) of 1949 amplified the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 with respect to the question of the protection of civilians. GCIV also emphasised the United Nations Charter:〔 the United Nations Charter (June 26, 1945) had prohibited war of aggression (See articles 1.1, 2.3, 2.4) and GCIV Article 47, the first paragraph in Section III: Occupied territories, restricted the effects of annexation on the rights of persons within those territories:
Article 49 prohibits mass movement of people out of or into occupied territory:〔Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949.(Commentary on Part III : Status and treatment of protected persons #Section III : Occupied territories Art. 49 ) by the ICRC〕
Protocol I (1977): "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts" has additional articles which cover military occupation, but many countries including the United States are not party to this additional protocol.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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