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alternative rock : ウィキペディア英語版
alternative rock

| subgenrelist =
| subgenres =
* Britpop
* Christian alternative rock
* college rock
* dream pop
* geek rock
* gothic rock
* grunge
* indie rock
* indie pop
* jangle pop
* math rock
* neo-psychedelia〔(AllMusic Neo-psychedelia essay )〕
* noise pop
* noise rock
* post-Britpop
* post-grunge
* post-rock
* Paisley Underground
* shoegazing
| fusiongenres =
* Alternative dance
* alternative metal
* grebo
* industrial rock
* Madchester
* post-punk revival
* psychobilly
* riot grrrl
| regional_scenes =
| local_scenes =
* Athens, Georgia
* Illinois
* Los Angeles
* Manchester, England
* Massachusetts
* Minnesota
* Seattle, Washington
* Ireland
| other_topics =
* Christian alternative rock
* college radio
* emo
* history
* independent music
* indie music scene
* Lollapalooza
* post-hardcore
| current_year = yes
Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative) is a genre of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s and 2000s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music, expressed primarily in a distorted guitar sound, subversive and/or transgressive lyrics and generally a nonchalant, defiant attitude. The term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style, or simply the independent, D.I.Y. ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music.〔di Perna, Alan. "Brave Noise—The History of Alternative Rock Guitar". ''Guitar World''. December 1995.〕 At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, that is seen to be descended from punk rock (including some examples of punk itself, as well as new wave, and post-punk).
Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context, and its regional roots. By the end of the 1980s magazines and zines, college radio airplay, and word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles (and music scenes) such as gothic rock, jangle pop, noise pop, indie rock, indie pop, grunge, Madchester, industrial rock, shoegazing, alternative hip hop, and rap rock. Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R.E.M., had even signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, and most acts remained signed to independent labels and received relatively little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became commercially successful.
By the end of the decade, alternative rock's mainstream prominence declined due to a number of events that caused grunge and Britpop to fade and led to the hiatus of the Lollapalooza festival. Nevertheless, post-grunge remained commercially viable into the start of the 21st century, with the commercial success of Creed and Matchbox Twenty and Radiohead's critical acclaim, and the success of some post-Britpop groups like Coldplay. Emo attracted attention in the larger alternative rock world, and the term was applied to a variety of artists, including multi-platinum acts. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, several alternative rock bands emerged, including The White Stripes, The Strokes, Franz Ferdinand, and Interpol, that drew from post-punk and new wave. Post-punk revival artists such as Modest Mouse and The Killers had commercial success in the early and mid 2000s.
==Origin of term==
Before the term ''alternative rock'' came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms.〔Azerrad (2001), p. 446.〕 In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term ''Alternative Music'' to describe the groups he was writing about.〔Azerrad (2001).〕 In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative".〔"Are We Not New Wave Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s by Theo Cateforis University of Michigan Press 2011 p. 38 ISBN 9780472115556〕 "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students.〔Reynolds, p. 391〕 In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, ''NME'' and ''Sounds'' magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts". The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980; it immediately succeeded in its aim to help these labels. At the time, the term ''indie'' was used literally to describe independently distributed records.〔Stanley, Bob. ("Will the indie chart rise again?" ). ''The Guardian''. July 31, 2009. Retrieved July 20, 2012.〕 By 1985, ''indie'' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than simply distribution status.〔
The use of the term ''alternative'' to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s;〔Thompson, Dave. "Introduction". ''Third Ear: Alternative Rock''. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 2000. p. viii.〕 at the time, the common music industry terms for cutting-edge music were ''new music'' and ''post modern'', respectively indicating freshness and a tendency to re contextualize sounds of the past.〔〔Reynolds, p. 338.〕 Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term 'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music".〔Mullen, Brendan. ''Whores: An Oral Biography of Perry Farrell and Jane's Addiction''. Cambridge: Da Capo, 2005. p. 19. ISBN 0-306-81347-5.〕 At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".〔Strauss, Neil. ("Forget Pearl Jam. Alternative Rock Lives" ). ''The New York Times''. March 2, 1997. Retrieved July 20, 2012.〕 Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, pop, punk rock, post-punk, and occasionally "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. The use of ''alternative'' gained further exposure due to the success of Lollapalooza, for which festival founder and Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell coined the term ''Alternative Nation''. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific.〔 In 1997, Neil Strauss of ''The New York Times'' defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle, '70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".〔
Defining music as alternative is often difficult because of two conflicting applications of the word. ''Alternative'' can describe music that challenges the status quo and that is "fiercely iconoclastic, anticommercial, and antimainstream", but the term is also used in the music industry to denote "the choices available to consumers via record stores, radio, cable television, and the Internet."〔Starr, Larry; Waterman, Christopher. ''American Popular Music: From Minstrelsy to MTV''. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. p. 430. ISBN 0-19-510854-X.〕 However alternative music has paradoxically become just as commercial and marketable as the mainstream rock, with record companies using the term "alternative" to market music to an audience that mainstream rock does not reach. Using a broad definition of the genre, Dave Thompson in his book ''Alternative Rock'' cites the formation of the Sex Pistols as well as the release of the albums ''Horses'' by Patti Smith and ''Metal Machine Music'' by Lou Reed as three key events that gave birth to alternative rock.〔(''Alternative Rock'' by Dave Thompson, reprinted by Google Books )〕 Until recent years (early 2000s) when indie rock became the most common term in the US to describe modern pop and rock, the terms "indie rock" and "alternative rock" were often used interchangeably;〔(Fonarow, Wendy ) (July 28, 2011). ("Ask the indie professor: why do Americans think they invented indie? For years, Americans never used the term 'indie', preferring to label the likes of Bush 'alternative'. But things changed" ). The Guardian.〕 whilst there are aspects which both genres have in common, indie rock was regarded as a British-based term, unlike the more American alternative rock.〔Carew, Anthony. ("Alternative Music 101 - Is There a Difference Between 'Alternative' and 'Indie'?" ). About.com. Retrieved July 20, 2012.〕

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
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