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War in Afghanistan (2001-present) : ウィキペディア英語版
War in Afghanistan (2001–14)

| combatant1a = 2001 invasion:
Northern Alliance

| combatant2= Taliban
*Islamic Jihad Union〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Taliban storm Kunduz city )
*Haqqani network〔(The Taliban's new leadership is allied with al Qaeda ), The Long War Journal, July 31, 2015〕
Allied groups
* al-Qaeda
Taliban splinter groups
* Fidai Mahaz
| combatant2a = 2001 invasion:
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

* Taliban
* 055 Brigade
| commander1= Hamid Karzai
Ashraf Ghani
George W. Bush
Barack Obama
Tony Blair
Gordon Brown
David Cameron
Jean Chrétien
Paul Martin
Stephen Harper
John Howard
John F. Campbell
List of former ISAF Commanders
| commander2=
Mohammed Omar

Akhtar Mansoor

Abdul Ghani Baradar

Haibatullah Akhunzada〔
Jalaluddin Haqqani

Obaidullah Akhund

Dadullah Akhund

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar

Osama bin Laden

Ayman al-Zawahiri

Haji Najibullah
| strength1=
Afghan National Security Forces: 352,000〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=The Afghan National Security Forces Beyond 2014: Will They Be Ready? )

ISAF: 18,000+

Military Contractors: 20,000+〔
| strength2=
Taliban: 60,000
(tentative estimate)

*Haqqani network: 4,000–15,000
HIG: 1,500 - 2,000+
24px al-Qaeda: 50–100
Fidai Mahaz: 8,000〔
| casualties1=
Afghan security forces:

26,252 killed〔〔(13,000 Afghan Security Forces Killed in Last Three Years )〕

Northern Alliance:

200 killed〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=US Bombs Wipe Out Farming Village )


Dead: 3,486 (all causes)
2,807 (hostile causes)
(United States: 2,356, United Kingdom: 454,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=British soldier dies three years after Afghanistan shooting )〕 Canada: 158, France: 88, Germany: 57, Italy: 53, Others: 321)〔

Wounded: 22,773 (United States: 19,950, United Kingdom: 2,188, Canada: 635)〔(OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF) U.S. CASUALTY STATUS FATALITIES as of: December 30, 2014, 10 a.m. EDT )〕〔(Number of Afghanistan UK Military and Civilian casualties (7 October 2001 to 30 November 2014) )〕


Dead: 1,582〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=U.S. Department of Labor – Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) – Defense Base Act Case Summary by Nation )

Wounded: 15,000+〔〔

Total killed: 31,520
| casualties2= Total killed: 25,500–40,500〔
| casualties3=Civilians killed: 26,270 (2001–2014)〔(War-related Death, Injury, and Displacement in Afghanistan and Pakistan 2001-2014 )〕
| campaignbox=

The War in Afghanistan (or the American war in Afghanistan)〔
〕 is the period in which the United States invaded Afghanistan after the September 11 attacks.〔(Peter Dahl Thruelsen, From Soldier to Civilian: DISARMAMENT DEMOBILISATION REINTEGRATION IN AFGHANISTAN, DIIS REPORT 2006:7 ), 12, supported by Uppsala Conflict Database Project, Uppsala University.〕 Supported initially by close allies, they were later joined by NATO beginning in 2003. It followed the Afghan Civil War's 1996–2001 phase. Its public aims were to dismantle al-Qaeda and to deny it a safe base of operations in Afghanistan by removing the Taliban from power.〔 and 〕 Key allies, including the United Kingdom, supported the U.S. from the start to the end of the phase. This phase of the War is the longest war in United States history.〔(These are America's 9 longest foreign wars ), washingtonpost.com.〕〔(America's longest war comes to an end (sort of) ), msnbc.com.〕〔(Obama Welcomes End Of The Longest War In American History ), huffingtonpost.com.au〕〔(The Longest War in American History Is Officially Over ), slate.com.〕〔(Editor's Notebook: Afghan War Now Country's Longest ), abcnews.go.com.〕
In 2001, U.S. President George W. Bush demanded that the Taliban hand over Osama bin Laden and expel al-Qaeda; bin Laden had already been wanted by the United Nations since 1999. The Taliban declined to extradite him unless given what they deemed convincing evidence of his involvement in the 9/11 attacks and declined demands to extradite other terrorism suspects apart from bin Laden. The request was dismissed by the U.S. as a delaying tactic, and on 7 October 2001 it launched Operation Enduring Freedom with the United Kingdom. The two were later joined by other forces, including the Northern Alliance. In December 2001, the United Nations Security Council established the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), to assist the Afghan interim authorities with securing Kabul. At the Bonn Conference in December 2001, Hamid Karzai was selected to head the Afghan Interim Administration, which after a 2002 loya jirga in Kabul became the Afghan Transitional Administration. In the popular elections of 2004, Karzai was elected president of the country, now named the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.〔Felbab-Brown, V. 2012. "Slip-Sliding on a Yellow Brick Road: Stabilization Efforts in Afghanistan." ''Stability: International Journal of Security and Development'' 1(1):4–19, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/sta.af〕
NATO became involved as an alliance in August 2003, taking the helm of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), and later that year assumed leadership of ISAF with troops from 43 countries. NATO members provided the core of the force. One portion of U.S. forces in Afghanistan operated under NATO command; the rest remained under direct U.S. command. Taliban leader Mullah Omar reorganized the movement, and in 2003, launched an insurgency against the government and ISAF. Though outgunned and outnumbered, insurgents from the Taliban, Haqqani Network, Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin and other groups have waged asymmetric warfare with guerilla raids and ambushes in the countryside, suicide attacks against urban targets and turncoat killings against coalition forces. The Taliban exploited weaknesses in the Afghan government, among the most corrupt in the world, to reassert influence across rural areas of southern and eastern Afghanistan. ISAF responded in 2006 by increasing troops for counterinsurgency operations to "clear and hold" villages and "nation building" projects to "win hearts and minds". While ISAF continued to battle the Taliban insurgency, fighting crossed into neighboring North-West Pakistan.
On 2 May 2011, United States Navy SEALs killed Osama bin Laden in Abbotabad, Pakistan. In May 2012, NATO leaders endorsed an exit strategy for withdrawing their forces. UN-backed peace talks have since taken place between the Afghan government and the Taliban. In May 2014, the United States announced that "() combat operations () end in 2014, () just a small residual force in the country until the end of 2016". As of 2015, tens of thousands of people have been killed in the war. Over 4,000 ISAF soldiers and civilian contractors as well as over 15,000 Afghan national security forces members have been killed, as well as nearly 20 thousand civilians. In October 2014, British forces handed over the last bases in Helmand to the Afghan military, officially ending their combat operations in the war. On 28 December 2014, NATO formally ended combat operations in Afghanistan and transferred full security responsibility to the Afghan government, via a ceremony in Kabul.
==Before the start of war==

In late 2000, Ahmad Shah Massoud, a Tajik nationalist and leader of the Northern Alliance, invited several other prominent Afghan tribal leaders to a jirga in northern Afghanistan "to settle political turmoil in Afghanistan".〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/AAEC001272/council-of-afghan-opposition )〕 Among those in attendance were Pashtun nationalists, Abdul Haq and Hamid Karzai.〔Senior diplomat and Afghanistan expert Peter Tomsen wrote: "The 'Lion of Kabul' (Haq ) and the 'Lion of Panjshir' (Shah Massoud ) … Haq, Massoud, and Karzai, Afghanistan's three leading moderates, could transcend the Pashtun—non-Pashtun, north-south divide."〕
In early 2001, Massoud and several other Afghan leaders addressed the European Parliament in Brussels, asking the international community to provide humanitarian help. The Afghan envoy asserted that the Taliban and al-Qaeda had introduced "a very wrong perception of Islam" and that without the support of Pakistan and Osama bin Laden, the Taliban would not be able to sustain their military campaign for another year. Massoud warned that his intelligence had gathered information about an imminent, large-scale attack on U.S. soil.
On 9 September 2001, two French-speaking Algerians posing as journalists killed Massoud in a suicide attack in Takhar Province of Afghanistan. The two perpetrators were later alleged to be members of al-Qaeda. They were interviewing Massoud before detonating a bomb hidden in their video camera. Both of the alleged al-Qaeda men were subsequently killed by Massoud's guards.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
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