Wake Forest University is a private, independent, nonprofit, non-sectarian, coeducational research university in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, founded in 1834. The university received its name from its original location in Wake Forest, north of Raleigh, North Carolina, the state capital. The Reynolda Campus, the university's main campus, has been located north of downtown Winston-Salem since the university moved there in 1956. The Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center campus is located near the Ardmore neighborhood in central Winston-Salem. The University also occupies lab space at Biotech Plaza, at the downtown Piedmont Research Park, and at the Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials. The University's Graduate School of Management maintains a presence on the main campus in Winston-Salem and in Charlotte, North Carolina.
In the 2016 ''U.S. News & World Report'' America's Best Colleges report, Wake Forest ranked tied for 10th in terms of "Best Undergraduate Teaching" in the U.S. and tied for 27th overall among national universities.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=U.S. News Best Colleges Rankings - Wake Forest University )〕 Wake Forest has produced 15 Rhodes Scholars, including 13 since 1986, four Marshall Scholars, 15 Truman Scholars and 62 Fulbright recipients since 1993.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://us.fulbrightonline.org/component/filter/?view=filter )〕
Notable people of Wake Forest University include: Author Maya Angelou, Senators Richard Burr and Kay Hagan, Athletes Chris Paul, Tim Duncan and Arnold Palmer, and CEO Charlie Ergen. Wake Forest has graduated many other successful alumni, including dozens of politicians, attorneys, physicians, scientists, and academics.
Wake Forest University was founded after the North Carolina Baptist State Convention purchased a plantation from Dr. Calvin Jones in an area north of Raleigh (Wake County) called the "Forest of Wake." The new school, designed to teach both Baptist ministers and laymen, opened on February 3, 1834, as the Wake Forest Manual Labor Institute, named because students and staff were required to spend half of each day doing manual labor on the plantation. Dr. Samuel Wait, a Baptist minister, was selected as the "principal," later president, of the institute.
In 1838, it was renamed Wake Forest College, and the manual labor system was abandoned. The town that grew up around the college came to be called the town of Wake Forest. In 1862, during the American Civil War, the school closed due to the loss of most students and some faculty to service in the Confederate States Army. The College re-opened in 1866 and prospered over the next four decades under the leadership of presidents Washington Manley Wingate, Thomas H. Pritchard, and Charles Taylor. In 1894, the School of Law was established, followed by the School of Medicine in 1902. The university held its first summer session in 1921. Lea Laboratory was built in 1887-1888, and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.
The leading college figure in the early 20th century was Dr. William L. Poteat, a gifted biologist and the first layman to be elected president in the college's history. "Dr. Billy" continued to promote growth, hired many outstanding professors, and expanded the science curriculum. He also stirred upheaval among North Carolina Baptists with his strong support of teaching the theory of evolution but eventually won formal support from the Baptist State Convention for academic freedom at the College.
The School of Medicine moved to Winston-Salem (then North Carolina's second-largest city) in 1941 under the supervision of Dean Coy Cornelius Carpenter, who guided the school through the transition from a two-year to a four-year program. The school then became the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. The following year, 1942, Wake Forest admitted its first female undergraduate students, after World War II dramatically depleted the pool of male students.
In 1946, as a result of large gifts from the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, the entire college agreed to move to Winston-Salem, a move that was completed for the beginning of the fall 1956 term, under the leadership of Dr. Harold W. Tribble. Charles and Mary Babcock (daughter of R. J. Reynolds) donated to the college about of fields and woods at "Reynolda," their estate.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Winston-Salem Journal )〕 From 1952 to 1956, fourteen new buildings were constructed on the new campus.〔The Undergraduate Schools: Bulletin of Wake Forest University 2007–2008〕 These buildings were constructed in Georgian style.〔 The old campus in Wake Forest was sold to the Baptist State Convention to establish the Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary.
On April 27, 1962, Wake Forest's Board of Trustees voted to accept Edward Reynolds, a native of the African nation of Ghana, as the first black full-time undergraduate at the school. This made Wake Forest the first major private university in the South to desegregate.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://facesofcourage.wfu.edu/ )〕 Reynolds, a transfer student from Shaw University, later became the first black graduate of the university in 1964, when he earned a bachelor's degree in history. Later, he went on to earn master's degrees at Ohio University and Yale Divinity School, and a Ph.D. in African History from the University of London. He became a professor of history at the University of California, San Diego and author of several history books.
A graduate studies program was inaugurated in 1961, and in 1967 the school became the fully accredited Wake Forest University. The Babcock Graduate School of Management, now known as the School of Business, was established in 1969. The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center opened in 1979. In 1986, Wake Forest gained autonomy from the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina and established a fraternal relationship with it. The Middleton House and its surrounding was deeded by gift to Wake Forest by Philip Hanes and his wife Charlotte in 1992. The donation was completed in 2011.〔("Historic home is donated to Wake," ''Winston-Salem Journal,'' February 1, 2011; December 11, 2012 )〕
The thirteenth president of Wake Forest is Nathan O. Hatch, former provost at the University of Notre Dame. Hatch was officially installed as president on October 20, 2005. He assumed office on July 1, 2005, succeeding Thomas K. Hearn, Jr., who had retired after 22 years in office.
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