Vermont ( , locally: ) is a New England state in the northeastern United States. Forests cover approximately 75% of its total land area. Vermont is the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States.〔(【引用サイトリンク】work='Table 44—U.S. maple syrup production and value, by state, calendar years )〕
Lake Champlain forms half of Vermont's western border, which it shares with the state of New York. The Green Mountains are within the state. Vermont is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east across the Connecticut River, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north.The state capital is Montpelier with a population of 7,855, making it the least populous state capital in the country. Vermont's most populous city is Burlington, with a 2013 population of 42,284,〔"Burlington (city) QuickFacts" 2013〕 which makes it the least populous city in the United States to be the largest city within a state. Burlington's metropolitan area has a population of 214,796. Vermont is one of the most racially homogeneous states; 94.3% of its population identified as white in 2010.
Vermont is the 6th smallest in area and the 2nd least populous of the 50 United States. It is the only New England state not bordering the Atlantic Ocean.
Originally inhabited by two major Native American tribes (the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki and the Iroquois), much of the territory that is now Vermont was claimed by France during its early colonial period. France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War (in the United States, referred to as the French and Indian War). For many years, the nearby colonies, especially New Hampshire and New York, disputed control of the area (then called the New Hampshire Grants). Settlers who held land titles granted by these colonies were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, which eventually prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic. Founded in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the republic lasted for fourteen years. Aside from the Thirteen Colonies, Vermont is one of only four U.S. states that was previously a sovereign state (along with Texas, Hawaii, and California). In 1791, Vermont joined the United States as the 14th state, the first in addition to the original 13 colonies. Vermont was the first state to partially abolish slavery while still independent and played an important geographical role in the Underground Railroad, which helped American slaves escape to Canada.
Vermont is located in the New England region in the eastern United States and comprises , making it the 45th-largest state. It is the only state that .〔("Burlington high rise gets facelift" ), ''Burlington Free Press''〕 Land comprises and water comprises , making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is larger than El Salvador and smaller than Haiti.
The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the eastern (New Hampshire) border of the state (the river is part of New Hampshire).〔''Vermont v. New Hampshire'' 〕 41% of Vermont's land area is part of the Connecticut River's watershed.〔(Fast Facts about the Connecticut River ). Crjc.org (October 9, 2008). Retrieved April 12, 2014.〕
Lake Champlain, the major lake in Vermont, is the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States and separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is long. Its greatest width, from east to west, is at the Canadian border; the narrowest width is at the Massachusetts line. The width averages . The state's geographic center is approximately three miles (5 km) east of Roxbury, in Washington County. There are fifteen US federal border crossings between Vermont and Canada.
The origin of the name "Vermont" is uncertain, but likely comes from the French ''les Verts Monts'', meaning "the Green Mountains". Thomas Young introduced it in 1777.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=The Name Vermont )〕 Some authorities say that the mountains were called green because they were more forested than the higher White Mountains of New Hampshire and Adirondacks of New York; others say that the predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, is the reason. The Green Mountain range forms a north–south spine running most of the length of the state, slightly west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are the Taconic Mountains; the Granitic Mountains are in the northeast. In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen.
Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state; Killington Peak, the second-highest; Camel's Hump, the state's third-highest; and Mount Abraham, the fifth-highest peak.〔(【引用サイトリンク】 author = Green Mountain Club )〕
Areas in Vermont administered by the National Park Service include the Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (in Woodstock) and the Appalachian National Scenic Trail.
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