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United States and state terrorism : ウィキペディア英語版
United States and state terrorism

Several scholars have accused the United States of conducting state terrorism. They have written about the liberal democracies' use of state terrorism, particularly in relation to the Cold War. According to them, state terrorism was used to protect the interest of capitalist elites, and the US organized a neo-colonial system of client states, co-operating with local elites to rule through terror. This work has proved controversial with mainstream scholars of both state and non-state terrorism.〔Blakeley, pp. 20-21〕
Notable works include Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman's ''The political economy of human rights'' (1979), Herman's ''The real terror network'' (1985), Alexander L. George' ''Western state terrorism'' (1991), Frederick Gareau's ''State terrorism and the United States'' (2004) and Doug Stokes' ''America's other war'' (2005). Of these, Chomsky and Herman are considered the foremost writers on the United States and state terrorism.〔Blakely, pp. 20-21〕
==Notable works==
Beginning in the late 1970s, Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman wrote a series of books on the United States' involvement with state terrorism. Their writings coincided with reports by Amnesty International and other human rights organizations of a new global "epidemic" of state torture and murder. Chomsky and Herman argued that terror was concentrated in the US sphere of influence in developing countries, and documented human rights abuses carried out by US client states in Latin America. They argued that of ten Latin American countries that had death squads, all were US client states. Worldwide they claimed that 74% of regimes that used torture on an administrative basis were U.S. client states, receiving military and other support from the US to retain power. They concluded that the global rise in state terror was a result of US foreign policy.〔Sluka, p. 8〕
In 1991, a book edited by Alexander L. George also argued that other Western powers sponsored terror in developing countries. It concluded that the US and its allies were the main supporters of terrorism throughout the world.〔Sluka, pp. 8-9〕 Gareau states that the number of deaths caused by non-state terrorism (3668 deaths between 1968 and 1980, as estimated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)) is "dwarfed" by those resulting from state terrorism in US-backed regimes such as Guatemala (150,000 killed, 50,000 missing during the Guatemalan Civil War - 93% of whom Gareau classifies as "victims of state terrorism"). In ''Worse Than War,'' Daniel Goldhagen argues that during the last two decades of the Cold War, the number of American client states practicing mass murder outnumbered those of the Soviet Union.〔Daniel Goldhagen (2009). ''Worse Than War.'' PublicAffairs. ISBN 1586487698 p.537
* "During the 1970s and 1980s, the number of American client states practicing mass-murderous politics exceeded those of the Soviets."〕 According to Latin Americanist John Henry Coatsworth, the number of repression victims in Latin America alone far surpassed that of the U.S.S.R. and its East European satellites during the period 1960 to 1990.〔("The Cold War in Central America, 1975-1991" ) John H. Coatsworth, Ch 10〕〔Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman (2014). ''(The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism: The Political Economy of Human Rights: Volume I ).'' Haymarket Books. p. xviii. ISBN 1608464067〕
Chomsky concluded that all powers backed state terrorism in client states. At the top were the US and other powers, notably the United Kingdom and France, that provided financial, military and diplomatic support to Third World regimes kept in power through violence. These governments acted together with multinational corporations, particularly in the arms and security industries. In addition, other developing countries outside the Western sphere of influence carried out state terror supported by rival powers.〔Sluka, p. 9〕
The alleged involvement of major powers in state terrorism in developing countries has led scholars to study it as a global phenomenon, rather than study individual countries in isolation.〔Sluka, p. 9〕

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