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Turkish War of Independence : ウィキペディア英語版
Turkish War of Independence

| combatant2 =
(until 1921)
* French West Africa
* Armenian Legion
(until 1922)
*Kuva-yi Inzibatiye
(naval support)
Kurdish rebels〔http://www.aydinlikgazete.com/m/?id=21214&t=makale〕
Çerkes Ethem's rebels (defected to Greeks)〔http://www.cnnturk.com/fotogaleri/yasam/cerkes-ethem-kimdir?page=4〕
(border clashes)
|commander1 = Mustafa Kemal Pasha
Fevzi Pasha
Kâzım Pasha
Ali Fuat Pasha
İsmet Pasha
Ali Saip Bey
Ali Bey
Kâzım Pasha
Halid Pasha
Cavit Pasha
Osman Nuri Pasha
Rüştü Pasha
Refet Pasha
Kâzım Özalp Pasha
Nihat Pasha
|commander2 = Mehmed VI
Süleyman Şefik Pasha
Henri Gouraud
Louis Franchet d'Esperey
Anastasios Papoulas
Georgios Hatzianestis
Leonidas Paraskevopoulos
Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe
Charles Harington Harington
Drastamat Kanayan
Movses Silikyan
|strength1 = May 1919: 35,000〔Ergün Aybars, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarihi I, Ege Üniversitesi Basımevi, 1984, pg 319-334 〕
Nov. 1920: 86,000 (creation of regular army)〔Turkish General Staff, ''Türk İstiklal Harbinde Batı Cephesi'', Edition II, Part 2, Ankara 1999, p. 225〕
Aug. 1922: 271,000〔Celâl Erikan, Rıdvan Akın: ''Kurtuluş Savaşı tarihi'', Türkiye İş̧ Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 2008, ISBN 9944884472, (page 339 ). 〕
|strength2 = 80,000 (Dec. 1919)〔Arnold J. Toynbee/Kenneth P Kirkwood, ''Turkey'', Benn 1926, p. 92〕
1922: 200,000〔History of the Campaign of Minor Asia, General Staff of Army, Directorate of Army History, Athens, 1967, p. 140: on June 11 (OC) 6,159 officers, 193,994 soldiers (=200,153 men)〕-250,000〔A. A. Pallis: (''Greece's Anatolian Venture - and After'' ), Taylor & Francis, p. 56 (footnote 5).〕〔"(When Greek meets Turk; How the Conflict in Asia Minor Is Regarded on the Spot - King Constantine's View )," T. Walter Williams, ''New York Times'', September 10, 1922.〕

10,150〔T.C. Genelkurmay Başkanlığı Harp Tarihi Dairesi Resmî Yayınları, ''Türk İstiklal Harbi: Güney Cephesi'', Edition 4, Ankara 1966, pg 47〕 (south) and 20,000〔Anahide Ter Minassian: La république d'Arménie. 1918-1920 La mémoire du siècle., éditions complexe, Bruxelles 1989 ISBN 2-87027-280-4, pg 220〕 (east)

60,000〔Isaiah Friedman: ''British Miscalculations: The Rise of Muslim Nationalism, 1918-1925'', Transaction Publishers, 2012, ISBN 1412847109, page 239〕〔Charles à Court Repington: ''After the War'', Simon Publications LLC, 2001, ISBN 1931313733, page 67〕

40,000〔Ronald L. Tarnstrom: ''Balkan battles'', Trogen Books, 1999, ISBN 0922037140, page 107〕


Revolts: 50,000+〔(''Milli Mücadelede İç Ayaklanmalar'' ), Yunus Kobal, Hacettepe University〕〔Aybars, 1984, pg 262-290〕

Total: 434,000 - 484,000
|casualties1= 13,000 killed〔Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, Reşat Kasaba: ''(The Cambridge History of Turkey Volume 4 )'', Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-521-62096-1, p. 159.〕
22,690 died of disease〔Sabahattin Selek: ''Millî mücadele - Cilt I (engl.: National Struggle - Edition I)'', Burçak yayınevi, 1963, page 109. 〕
5,362 died of wounds or other non-combat causes〔
35,000 wounded〔
7,000 prisoners〔Ahmet Özdemir, (''Savaş esirlerinin Milli mücadeledeki yeri'' ), Ankara University, Türk İnkılap Tarihi Enstitüsü Atatürk Yolu Dergisi, Edition 2, Number 6, 1990, pg 328-332〕

Total: 83,052
24,240 killed 〔Σειρά Μεγάλες Μάχες: Μικρασιατική Καταστροφή (Νο 8), συλλογική εργασία, έκδοση περιοδικού Στρατιωτική Ιστορία, Εκδόσεις Περισκόπιο, Αθήνα, Νοέμβριος 2002, σελίδα 64 〕
18,095 missing
48,880 wounded
4,878 died outside of combat
13,740 prisoners〔Σειρά Μεγάλες Μάχες: Μικρασιατική Καταστροφή (Νο 8), συλλογική εργασία, έκδοση περιοδικού Στρατιωτική Ιστορία, Εκδόσεις Περισκόπιο, Αθήνα, Νοέμβριος 2002, σελίδα 64 〕〔''Στρατιωτική Ιστορία'' journal, Issue 203, December 2013, page 67〕

1,100+ killed〔Pars Tuğlacı: (''Tarih boyunca Batı Ermenileri'' ), Pars Yayın, 2004, ISBN 975-7423-06-8, p. 794.〕
3,000+ prisoners〔Christopher J. Walker, ''Armenia: The Survival of a Nation'', Croom Helm, 1980, (p. 310. )〕

~500 rebels killed〔
32 rebel leaders and 500 rebels captured〔Türk İstiklal Harbi, Edition VI, ''İstiklal Harbinde Ayaklanmalar'', T. C. Genelkurmay Harp Tarihi Başkanlığı Resmî Yayınları, 1974, page 281〕
Total: 121,965+
|casualties3=264,000 Greek civilians killed〔Death by Government, Rudolph Rummel, 1994.〕
60,000-250,000 Armenian civilians killed〔
These are according to the figures provided by Alexander Miasnikyan, the President of the Council of People's Commissars of Soviet Armenia, in a telegram he sent to the Soviet Foreign Minister Georgy Chicherin in 1921. Miasnikyan's figures were broken down as follows: of the approximately 60,000 Armenians who were killed by the Turkish armies, 30,000 were men, 15,000 women, 5,000 children, and 10,000 young girls. Of the 38,000 who were wounded, 20,000 were men, 10,000 women, 5,000 young girls, and 3,000 children. Instances of mass rape, murder and violence were also reported against the Armenian populace of Kars and Alexandropol: see Vahakn N. Dadrian. (2003). ''The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus''. New York: Berghahn Books, (pp. 360–361 ). ISBN 1-57181-666-6.〕〔Armenia : The Survival of a Nation, Christopher Walker, 1980.〕
|notes =
| campaignbox =
The Turkish War of Liberation (Turkish: ''İstiklâl Harbi'' or ''Kurtuluş Savaşı'' literally "Liberation War" or ''Millî Mücadele'' literally "National Campaign" ; May 19, 1919 – July 24, 1923) was fought between the Turkish nationalists and the proxies of the Allies, namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul), after the country was occupied and partitioned following the Ottoman Empire's defeat in World War I. Although present, few British, French, Italian or Georgian troops were deployed or engaged in combat.
The Turkish National Movement (''Kuva-yi Milliye'') in Anatolia culminated in the formation of a new Grand National Assembly (GNA; ) by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues. After the end of the Turkish-Armenian, Franco-Turkish, Greco-Turkish wars (often referred to as the Eastern Front, the Southern Front, and the Western Front of the war, respectively), the Treaty of Sèvres was abandoned and the Treaties of Kars (October 1921) and Lausanne (July 1923) were signed. The Allies left Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey decided the establishment of a Republic in Turkey, which was declared on October 29, 1923.
With the establishment of the Turkish National Movement, the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, and the abolition of the sultanate, the Ottoman era and the Empire came to an end, and with Atatürk's reforms, the Turks created the modern, secular nation-state of Turkey on the political front. On 3 March 1924, the Ottoman Caliphate was officially abolished and the last Caliph was exiled.
==October 30, 1918 – May 1919==

On October 30, 1918, the Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I, bringing hostilities in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I to a close. The treaty granted the Allies the right to occupy forts controlling the Straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosporus; and the right to occupy "in case of disorder" any territory in case of a threat to security.〔Mango, ''Atatürk'', chap. 10: Figures on a ruined landscape, pp. 157–85.〕〔Erickson, ''Ordered To Die'', chap. 1.〕 Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe—the British signatory of the Mudros Armistice—stated the Triple Entente′s public position that they had no intention to dismantle the government of the Ottoman Empire or place it under military occupation by "occupying Constantinople".〔Nur Bilge Criss, ''Istanbul under Allied Occupation 1918–1923'', p. 1〕 However, dismantling the Ottoman government and partitioning the Ottoman Empire among the Allied nations had been an objective of the Entente since the start of the war.〔Paul C. Helmreich, ''From Paris to Sèvres: The Partition of the Ottoman Empire at the Peace Conference of 1919-1920'', Ohio Univiversity Press, 1974 ISBN 0-8142-0170-9〕
On November 13, 1918, a French brigade entered the city to begin the Occupation of Constantinople and its immediate dependencies, followed by a fleet consisting of British, French, Italian and Greek ships deploying soldiers on the ground the next day. A wave of seizures took place in the following months by the Allies. On the 14th of November, joint French-Greek troops occupied the town of Uzunköprü in Eastern Thrace as well as the railway axis till the train station of Hadımköy near Çatalca on the outskirts of Constantinople. On December 1, British troops based in Syria occupied Kilis. Beginning in December, French troops began successive seizures of Ottoman territory, including the towns of Antakya, Mersin, Tarsus, Ceyhan, Adana, Osmaniye and Islahiye.〔"The Armenian Legion and Its Destruction of the Armenian Community in Cilicia", Stanford J. Shaw, http://www.armenian-history.com/books/Armenian_legion_Cilicia.pdf〕 The first bullet was fired by Mehmet Çavuş〔Mehmet Çavuş became Mehmet Kara according to the Surname Law in 1934.〕 in Dörtyol against the French in December 19, 1918.〔Karakese Municipality, (''Milli Mücadelede İlk Kurşunu Karakese'de Mehmet Çavuş (KARA MEHMET) Atmıştır'' ) (accessed May 4, 2012). 〕
On January 19, 1919, the Paris Peace Conference opened, a meeting of Allied nations that set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers, including the Ottoman Empire. As a special body of the Paris Conference, "The Inter-Allied Commission on Mandates in Turkey" was established to pursue the secret treaties they had signed between 1915 and 1917.〔The activities of commission is reported in Henry Churchill King, Charles Richard Crane (King-Crane Commission), "Report of American Section of Inter-allied Commission of Mandates in Turkey" published by American Section in 1919.〕 Among the objectives was a new Hellenic Empire based on the Megali Idea. This was promised by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George to Greece.〔Erickson, ''Ordered To Die", chap. 8, extended story at the Cost section.〕 Italy sought control over the southern part of Anatolia under the Agreement of St.-Jean-de-Maurienne. France expected to exercise control over Hatay, Lebanon and Syria, and also wanted control over a portion of southeastern Anatolia based on the Sykes-Picot Agreement. France signed the French-Armenian Agreement and promised the realization of an Armenian state in the Mediterranean region in exchange to the French Armenian Legion.〔Richard G. Hovannisian, ''Armenia on the Road to Independence'', 1967.〕
Meanwhile, Allied countries continued to lay claim to portions of the quickly crumbling Ottoman Empire. British forces based in Syria occupied Maraş, Urfa and Birecik, while French forces embarked by gunboats and sent troops to the Black Sea ports of Zonguldak and Karadeniz Ereğli commanding Turkey's coal mining region. At the Paris Peace Conference, competing claims of Western Anatolia by Greek and Italian delegations led Greece to land the flagship of the Greek Navy at Smyrna, resulting in the Italian delegation walking out of the peace talks. On April 30, Italy responded to the possible idea of Greek incorporation of Western Anatolia by also sending a warship to Smyrna (Izmir) as a show of force against the Greek campaign. A large Italian force also landed in Antalya. With the Italian delegation absent from the Paris Peace talks, Britain was able to sway France and the United States in favour of Greece′s claims and ultimately the Conference authorized the landing of Greek troops on Anatolian territory.
The Greek campaign of Western Anatolia began on May 15, 1919, as Greek troops began landing in Smyrna. For the city′s Muslim population, the day is marked by the "first bullet" fired by Hasan Tahsin〔Mehmet Çavuş's fire against the French in Dörtyol was misknown until near past. But Hasan Tahsin's firing was the first bullet in West Front〕 at the Greek standard bearer at the head of the troops, the murder by bayonet coups of Miralay Fethi Bey for refusing to shout "Zito Venizelos" and the killing and wounding of unarmed Turkish soldiers in the city's principal casern, as well as of 300-400 civilians. Greek troops moved from Smyrna outwards, to towns on the Karaburun peninsula, Selçuk, situated a hundred kilometers south of Smyrna at a key location that commands the fertile Menderes River valley and Menemen and Selçuk, towards the north and the southeast of Smyrna.

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