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Tupac Shakur : ウィキペディア英語版
Tupac Shakur

Tupac Amaru Shakur (Previously known as Lesane Parish Crooks)( ; June 16, 1971September 13, 1996), also known by his stage names 2Pac and (briefly) Makaveli, was an American rapper and actor. As of 2007, Shakur has sold over 75 million records worldwide. His double disc albums ''All Eyez on Me'' and his ''Greatest Hits'' are among the best selling albums in the United States.〔List of best-selling albums in the United States〕 He has been listed and ranked as one of the greatest artists of all time by many magazines, including ''Rolling Stone'' which ranked him 86th on its list of The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=100 Greatest Artists of All Time )〕 He is consistently ranked as one of the greatest rappers ever, as well as one of the most influential rappers of all time.〔http://www.bet.com/music/photos/2011/09/50-most-influential-rappers.html#!2011-topic-tu-pac-crop〕
Shakur began his career as a roadie, backup dancer and MC for the alternative hip hop group Digital Underground, eventually branching off as a solo artist.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Tupac Shakur )〕〔Edwards, Paul, 2009, ''How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC'', Chicago Review Press, p. 330.〕 The themes of most of Shakur's songs revolved around the violence and hardship in inner cities, racism and other social problems. Both of his parents and several other people in his family were members of the Black Panther Party, whose ideals were reflected in his songs.
During the latter part of his career, Shakur was a vocal participant during the East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry, becoming involved in conflicts with other rappers, producers, and record-label staff members, most notably The Notorious B.I.G. and the label Bad Boy Records.〔Jay-Z: ''Essays on Hip Hop's Philosopher King'', p. 55〕
On September 7, 1996, Shakur was fatally shot in a drive-by shooting at the intersection of Flamingo Road and Koval Lane in Las Vegas, Nevada. He was taken to the University Medical Center of Southern Nevada, where he died six days later.〔(Tupac Shakur's death certificate details ) reported by Cathy Scott. Retrieved October 05, 2007.〕
== Early life ==

Shakur's birth name was Lesane Parish Crooks, but when he was 3 years old, he was renamed after the last Incan emperor. was born on June 16, 1971, in the East Harlem section of Manhattan in New York City. He was named after Túpac Amaru II,〔John Crow "The Epic of America", page 408.〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】author=Charles F. Walker )〕 the 18th-century Peruvian revolutionary who was executed after leading an indigenous uprising against Spanish rule.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Colonial and Neocolonial Latin America (1750–1900) )
His mother, Afeni Shakur (born Alice Faye Williams), and his father, Billy Garland, were active members of the Black Panther Party in New York in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The infant was born a month after his mother was acquitted of more than 150 charges of "Conspiracy against the United States government and New York landmarks" in the New York "Panther 21" court case.
Shakur lived from an early age with people who were involved with the Black Liberation Army and convicted of serious criminal offenses and who were imprisoned. His godfather, Elmer "Geronimo" Pratt, a high-ranking Black Panther, was convicted of murdering a school teacher during a 1968 robbery, although his sentence was later overturned. His stepfather, Mutulu, spent four years at large on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list beginning in 1982. Mutulu was wanted for having helped his sister Assata Shakur (also known as Joanne Chesimard) to escape from a penitentiary in New Jersey. She had been imprisoned for killing a state trooper in 1973. Mutulu was caught in 1986 and imprisoned for the robbery of a Brinks armored truck in which two police officers and a guard were killed. Shakur had a half-sister, Sekyiwa, two years his junior, and an older stepbrother, Mopreme "Komani" Shakur, who appeared in many of his recordings.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Exclusive: Mopreme Shakur Talks Tupac; Rapper's B-Day Celebrated )
At the age of twelve, Shakur enrolled in Harlem's 127th Street Repertory Ensemble and was cast as the Travis Younger character in the play ''A Raisin in the Sun'', which was performed at the Apollo Theater. In 1986, the family relocated to Baltimore, Maryland. After completing his second year at Paul Laurence Dunbar High School, he transferred to the Baltimore School for the Arts, where he studied acting, poetry, jazz, and ballet.〔 He performed in Shakespeare plays, and in the role of the Mouse King in the ballet ''The Nutcracker''.〔 Shakur, accompanied by one of his friends, Dana "Mouse" Smith, as his beatbox, won many rap competitions and was considered to be the best rapper in his school. He was remembered as one of the most popular kids in his school because of his sense of humor, superior rapping skills, and ability to mix with all crowds. He developed a close friendship with a young Jada Pinkett (later Jada Pinkett Smith) that lasted until his death.
In the documentary ''Tupac: Resurrection'', Shakur says, "Jada is my heart. She will be my friend for my whole life." Pinkett Smith calls him "one of my best friends. He was like a brother. It was beyond friendship for us. The type of relationship we had, you only get that once in a lifetime." A poem written by Shakur titled "Jada" appears in his book, ''The Rose That Grew from Concrete'', which also includes a poem dedicated to Pinkett Smith called "The Tears in Cupid's Eyes". During his time in art school, Shakur became affiliated with the Baltimore Young Communist League USA,〔Farrar, Jordan. (May 13, 2011) ("Baltimore students protest cuts" ), ''Peoples World'', Retrieved April 27, 2012.〕〔("'And Still I See No Changes': Tupac's legacy 15 years on" ), ''Green Left Weekly''(October 16, 2011). Retrieved April 27, 2012.〕 and began dating the daughter of the director of the local chapter of the Communist Party USA.
In June 1988, Shakur, then 17, and his family moved to Marin City, California, a residential community located 5 miles (8.0 km) north of San Francisco,〔 where he attended Tamalpais High School in nearby Mill Valley. Shakur contributed to the school's drama department by performing in several productions. In an English class, Shakur wrote a paper "Conquering All Obstacles" where he said, "our raps not the sorry-story raps everyone is so tired of. They are about what happens in the real world. Our goal is () have people relate to our raps, making it easier to see what really is happening out there. Even more important, what we may do to better our world."
He began attending the poetry classes of Leila Steinberg in 1989. That same year, Steinberg organized a concert with a former group of Shakur's, "Strictly Dope"; the concert led to him being signed with Atron Gregory. He set him up as a roadie and backup dancer with the hip hop group Digital Underground in 1990.〔〔〔

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