| Trojan language ： ウィキペディア英語版|
The language spoken by the Trojans in the ''Iliad'' is Homeric Greek. However, there has been some scholarly debate on what language the historical Trojans would have spoken at the time of the Trojan War, identified with the site Troy VIIa.〔This language is identified with the Troy of the Greek epics to a greater or lesser degree, depending on judgements regarding the historicity of the Iliad〕 The language likely to have been prevalent in the historical city is Luwian, although there are no direct records.
The cultural context in which the lost Trojan language existed was described by Jaan Puhvel, ''Homer and Hittite'' (1991).
The Trojans in the ''Iliad'' have no difficulty in speaking to their Greek opponents. However, this may merely be evidence that a fictional convention frequently used in narratives in later times had already been adopted by the poet of the ''Iliad'': for example, Jason finds no language barrier with Medea in Colchis, and Trojan Aeneas converses without difficulty both with Punic Dido and with Latin Turnus.
Greek legend gives further indications on the subject of language at Troy. For one thing, the allies of Troy, listed at length in the Trojan Battle Order which closes book 2 of the ''Iliad'', are depicted as speaking various languages and thus needing to have orders translated to them by their commanders (2.802-6). Elsewhere in the poem (4.433–38) they are compared to sheep and lambs bleating in a field as they talk together in their different languages. The inference is that, from the Greek point of view, the languages of Trojans and their allied neighbors were not as unified as those of the Achaeans.
Hilary Mackie has detected in the ''Iliad'' a consistent differentiation between representations in Greek of Achaean and Trojan speech;〔Mackie, ''Talking Trojan: Speech and Community in the Iliad'' (Lanham MD: Rowmann & Littlefield) 1996, reviewed by Joshua T. Katz in ''Language'' 74.2 (1998) pp 408–09.〕 in simplest terms, Trojans speak poetically, with the aim of avoiding conflict, whereas Achaeans repeatedly engage in public, ritualized abuse that linguists term (from another source) flyting: "Achaeans are proficient at blame, while Trojans perform praise poetry" (Mackie 1998:83).
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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