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Theodore Roosevelt : ウィキペディア英語版
Theodore Roosevelt

|children = Alice Lee, Theodore III, Kermit, Ethel Carow, Archibald Bulloch ("Archie"), and Quentin
|relations = ''See Roosevelt family
|alma_mater = Harvard University (A.B.)
Columbia Law School (dropout)
|profession =
|religion = Dutch Reformed Church
|signature = Theodore Roosevelt Signature-2.svg
|signature_alt = Cursive signature in ink
|branch = New York National Guard
United States Army
|serviceyears = 1882–1886, 1898
|rank = 15px Colonel
|commands = 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry
|battles = Spanish–American War
Battle of Las Guasimas
Battle of San Juan Hill
|awards = 22px Nobel Peace Prize (1906)
Medal of Honor
(Posthumously; 2001)
Theodore Roosevelt ( ;}} October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or TR, was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States, from 1901 to 1909. A leader of the Republican Party, he was a leading force of the Progressive Era. Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt embraced a strenuous lifestyle and successfully regained his health. He integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he became a lifelong naturalist before attending Harvard College. His first of many books, ''The Naval War of 1812'' (1882), established his reputation as both a learned historian and a popular writer. He entered politics, becoming the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. Following the deaths of his wife and mother, he escaped to the wilderness and operated a cattle ranch in the Dakotas. He returned to run unsuccessfully for Mayor of New York City in 1886. He served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under William McKinley, resigning after one year to serve with the Rough Riders, gaining national fame for courage during the War in Cuba. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of New York in 1898. A frustrated party establishment made him McKinley's running mate in the election of 1900. He campaigned vigorously across the country, helping McKinley win reelection by a landslide on a platform of peace, prosperity, and conservatism.
The assassination of President McKinley in September 1901 meant that at age 42, Roosevelt became the youngest United States President in history. Leading his party and country into the Progressive Era, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, and pure food and drugs. Making conservation a top priority, he established myriad new national parks, forests, and monuments in order to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he concentrated on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal. He also greatly expanded the United States Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States' naval power. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize.
Elected in 1904 to a full term, he continued pursuit of progressive policies, eventually culminating in blockage of his legislative agenda in Congress. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, for the presidency. After leaving office, he went on safari in Africa and toured Europe. Returning to the USA, he became frustrated with Taft's approach as his successor, trying, but failing to win the nomination in 1912. He founded his own party, the Progressive "Bull Moose" Party, and called for wide-ranging progressive reforms. The split allowed the Democrats to win the White House and Congress in 1912; those Republicans aligned with Taft would control the Republican Party for decades.
Frustrated at home, Roosevelt led a two-year expedition in the Amazon, nearly dying of tropical disease. During World War I, he opposed President Wilson for keeping the U.S. out of the war against Germany, and offered his military services, which were never summoned. Although he planned to run again for president in 1920, his health quickly deteriorated, and he died in early 1919. Roosevelt has consistently been ranked by scholars as one of the greatest U.S. presidents. His face adorns Mount Rushmore alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln.
==Early life and family==

Theodore Roosevelt was born on October 27, 1858, in a four-story brownstone at 28 East 20th Street, in Manhattan, New York. He was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart "Mittie" Bulloch and glass businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. He had an older sister, Anna (nicknamed "Bamie"), a younger brother, Elliott, and a younger sister, Corinne. Elliott was the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. His paternal grandfather was of Dutch descent; his other ancestry included English, Scots-Irish, Scottish, Welsh, French, and German. Thee (Theodore Roosevelt, Sr.) was the fifth son of businessman Cornelius Van Schaack "C.V.S." Roosevelt and Margaret Barnhill. Thee's fourth cousin, James Roosevelt I, who was also a businessman, was the father of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Mittie was the younger daughter of Major James Stephens Bulloch and Martha P. "Patsy" Stewart. Through the Van Schaacks Roosevelt is a descendant of the Schuyler family.〔Genealogy of the Oyster Bay Roosevelts. ''Almanac of Theodore Roosevelt'' http://www.theodore-roosevelt.com/trfamily.html Accessed March 14, 2015〕
Roosevelt's youth was largely shaped by his poor health and debilitating asthma. He repeatedly experienced sudden nighttime asthma attacks that caused the experience of being smothered to death, which terrified both Theodore and his parents. Doctors had no cure. Nevertheless, he was energetic and mischievously inquisitive. His lifelong interest in zoology began at age seven when he saw a dead seal at a local market; after obtaining the seal's head, Roosevelt and two cousins formed what they called the "Roosevelt Museum of Natural History". Having learned the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with animals that he killed or caught; he then studied the animals and prepared them for display. At age nine, he recorded his observation of insects in a paper entitled "The Natural History of Insects".〔.〕
Roosevelt's father significantly influenced him. His father had been a prominent leader in New York's cultural affairs; he helped to found the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and had been especially active in mobilizing support for the Union war effort. Roosevelt wrote: "My father, Theodore Roosevelt, was the best man I ever knew. He combined strength and courage with gentleness, tenderness, and great unselfishness. He would not tolerate in us children selfishness or cruelty, idleness, cowardice, or untruthfulness." Family trips abroad, including tours of Europe in 1869 and 1870, and Egypt in 1872, also had a lasting impact. Hiking with his family in the Alps in 1869, Roosevelt found that he could keep pace with his father. He had discovered the significant benefits of physical exertion to minimize his asthma and bolster his spirits. With encouragement from his father, Roosevelt began a heavy regime of exercise. After being manhandled by two older boys on a camping trip, he found a boxing coach to teach him to fight and strengthen his weakened body.
Roosevelt later articulated the abiding influence of the courageous men he read about, including those in his family: "I was nervous and timid. Yet from reading of the people I admired—ranging from the soldiers of Valley Forge and Morgan's riflemen, to the heroes of my favorite stories—and from hearing of the feats of my southern forefathers and kinsfolk and from knowing my father, I felt a great admiration for men who were fearless and who could hold their own in the world, and I had a great desire to be like them."

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