''The Times'' is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'' and became ''The Times'' on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its sister paper ''The Sunday Times'' (founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by the News Corp group headed by Rupert Murdoch. ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times'' do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have only had common ownership since 1967.
In 1959, historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of ''The Times'' in shaping London's elite views of events:
For much more than a century ''The Times'' has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain. Its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street.〔Allan Nevins, "American Journalism and Its Historical Treatment", ''Journalism Quarterly'' (1959) 36#4 pp 411-22〕
''The Times'' is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, including ''The Times of India'' (founded in 1838), ''The Straits Times'' (1845), ''The New York Times'' (1851), ''The Irish Times'' (1859), the ''Cape Times'' (South Africa) (1872), the ''Los Angeles Times'' (1881), ''The Seattle Times'' (1891), ''The Manila Times'' (1898), ''The Daily Times'' (Malawi) (1900), ''The Canberra Times'' (1926), ''The Times'' (Malta) (1935) and ''The Hong Kong Times'' (1949-1994). In these countries and others, the newspaper is often referred to as ''The London Times'' or ''The Times of London''.
''The Times'' is the originator of the widely used Times Roman typeface, originally developed by Stanley Morison of ''The Times'' in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 ''The Times'' began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern. ''The Times'' was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. ''The Sunday Times'' remains a broadsheet.
Though traditionally a moderate newspaper and sometimes a supporter of the Conservative Party, it supported the Labour Party in the 2001 and 2005 general elections. In 2004, according to MORI, the voting intentions of its readership were 40% for the Conservative Party, 29% for the Liberal Democrats, and 26% for Labour. ''The Times'' had an average daily circulation of 394,448 in March 2014;〔 in the same period, ''The Sunday Times'' had an average daily circulation of 839,077.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url= http://www.newsworks.org.uk/The-Sunday-Times )〕 An American edition of ''The Times'' has been published since 6 June 2006. It has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitized paper is online from Gage Cengage publisher.〔Bingham, Adrian. "The Times Digital Archive, 1785–2006 (Gale Cengage)," ''English Historical Review'' (2013) 128#533 pp: 1037-1040. doi: 10.1093/ehr/cet144〕
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