Saint Peter ((ラテン語:Petrus), , Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, ''Shemayon Keppa'', (ヘブライ語:שמעון בר יונה) ; died 64 AD〔), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church. The Roman Catholic Church considers him to be the first Pope, ordained by Jesus in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew . The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and associate him with founding the Church of Antioch and later the Church in Rome,〔(Peter, in the Catholic Encyclopedia 1913 )〕 but differ about the authority of his various successors in present-day Christianity.
The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John (or ''Jonah'' or ''Jona'') and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples. Originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesus's inner circle, thrice denied Jesus, and preached on the day of Pentecost.
According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His remains are said to be those contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter's Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery. Every June 29 since 1736, a statue of Saint Peter in St. Peter's Basilica is adorned with papal tiara, ring of the fisherman, and papal vestments, as part of the celebration of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct papal successor to Saint Peter is Pope .
Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter; however, some biblical scholars reject the Petrine authorship of both.〔Dale Martin 2009 (lecture). . Yale University. Accessed July 22, 2013. (Lecture 24 (transcript) )〕 The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. Several other books bearing his name – the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, and Judgment of Peter – are considered by Christian churches as apocryphal.〔Thomas Patrick Halton, (''On Illustrious Men'' ), v. 100, CUA Press, 1999, pp 5–7 ISBN 0-8132-0100-4.〕〔("The Early Church Fathers" ), Chapter 1, New Advent〕
==Names and etymologies==
Peter's original name was "Shimon" or "Simeon" ("Simon" in modern English). He was later given the name "Peter", New Testament Greek ''Πέτρος (Petros)'' derived from ''πέτρα (petra)'', which means rock. In the Latin translation of the Bible this became ''Petrus,'' a masculine form of the feminine ''petra (f)'', which is a loanword from Greek still meaning "rock." Another version of this name is (''Šimʻōn Kêpâ'' ''Sëmʻān Kêpâ''), after his name in Hellenised Aramaic.
The English and German "Peter", French "Pierre", the Italian "Pietro", the Spanish and Portuguese "Pedro", the Polish "Piotr" , Russian Пётр ("Pyotr") and Malayalam പത്രോസ് ("patros") are all derived from ''Petrus''. ("Pierre" is also an ordinary French noun meaning "stone".)
The Syriac or Aramaic word for "rock" is ''kepa'', which in Greek became (ギリシア語:Πέτρος), also meaning "rock".〔''Cepha'' or ''cephah'' is a Syriac word ( ''Kîpâ'');see John Maclean, M.A., F.R.G.S. (''A Dictionary of the Dialects of Vernacular Syriac as Spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, Northwest Persia, and the Plain of Moṣul'' ) Cambridge at the University Press, 1895. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: p. 124. However, a "loose language" modern Aramaic dictionary may define ''Cepha'' yet not explain the origin of the word, e.g., Marcus Jastrow ("Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature" ), 1903. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: P. 634 It is unlikely that one will find this particular word in any non-Syriac dictionary of Aramaic. For instance, the Hebrew equivalent of ''Cepha'' () would not be present, while (ßĕ'lặᵉ); i.e., rock, cliff, Petra; Karl Feyerabend, PhD ("A complete Hebrew-English pocket-dictionary to the Old Testament" ), Cöthen, Germany, 1910. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: P. 233 would, for is a native Hebrew word. Within a "strict language" dictionary the word will be in its native and original form, thus "rock" will be translated into the language that is being used, e.g., "''English-Hebrew dictionary''". See: A. S. Waldstein ("English-Hebrew dictionary" ), ''Jerusalem,'' 1920. Accessed Jun. 16, 2011: P. 442, where the word(s) for ''rock'' is translated as such: ( ''and not'' .〕 He is also known as ''Simon Peter'', ''Cephas'' ((ギリシア語:Κηφᾶς)) and ''Kepha'' ((ヘブライ語:כיפא)). Both ''Cephas'' and ''Kepha'' also mean rock.〔((ヘブライ語:כֵּיפׇא \ כֵּיף)) is an indirect transliteration of the Syriac (), ((ギリシア語:Κηφᾶς)) is a direct transliteration of the Syriac (), and ((ヘブライ語:כֵּיפׇא \ כֵּיף)) is a direct transliteration of the Greek. The Hebrew word ((ヘブライ語:כאפא)) is also a direct transliteration of the Syriac. (''cƒ.'' ''Interlinear Peshitta Aramaic New Testament Bible'' (Matthew xvi. 18 )).〕
Catholic theologian Rudolf Pesch argues that the Aramaic ''cepha'' means "stone, ball, clump, clew" and that "rock" is only a connotation; that in the Attic Greek ''petra'' denotes "grown rock, rocky range, cliff, grotto"; and that ''petros'' means "small stone, firestone, sling stone, moving boulder".〔Pesch, Rudolf (1980). Simon-Petrus. Hiersemann, Stuttgart. p. 29〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』