|area_code = 314
|latd= 38 |latm= 37 |lats= 38 |latNS=N
|longd= 90 |longm= 11 |longs= 52 |longEW=W
|elevation_ft = 466
|elevation_m = 142
St. Louis ( or )〔http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/saint%20louis〕〔(American Heritage Dictionary )〕〔Often mispronounced outside of St. Louis.〕 is a city〔(Missouri QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau ).〕 and port in the U.S. state of Missouri. The city developed along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which forms Missouri's border with Illinois. In 2010, St. Louis had a population of 319,294; a 2013 estimate put the population at 318,416, making it the 58th-most populous U.S. city and the second-largest city in the state in terms of city proper population. The St. Louis metropolitan area includes the city as well as nearby areas in Missouri and Illinois; with a population of 2,905,893, it is the largest in Missouri and one of the largest in the United States. St. Louis was founded in 1764 by Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau and named after Louis IX of France. Claimed first by the French, who settled mostly east of the Mississippi River, the region in which the city stands was ceded to Spain following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War. Its territory east of the Mississippi was ceded to the Kingdom of Great Britain, the victor. The area of present-day Missouri was part of Spanish Louisiana from 1762 until 1803.〔http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/349302/Louisiana-Purchase〕
After the United States acquired this territory in the Louisiana Purchase, St. Louis developed as a major port on the Mississippi River. In the late 19th century, St. Louis was ranked as the fourth-largest city in the United States. It separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Summer Olympics. The city's population peaked in 1950; with restructuring of heavy industry and loss of jobs, plus postwar suburbanization, it began a long decline that continues into the 21st century. Immigration has increased, and the city is the center of the largest Bosnian population in the world outside their homeland.
The economy of St. Louis relies on service, manufacturing, trade, transportation of goods, and tourism. The city is home to several major corporations including Express Scripts, Peabody Energy, Ameren, Ralcorp, and Sigma-Aldrich, as well as a large medical and research community. St. Louis has three professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball, the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League, and the St. Louis Rams of the National Football League. The city is commonly identified with the tall Gateway Arch in Downtown St. Louis.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River. Their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 AD to 1500 AD. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City." These mounds were mostly demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, and the Illiniwek.
European exploration of the area was recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years later, La Salle claimed the region for France as part of ''La Louisiane.''
The earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country (also known as Upper Louisiana) on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia, Kaskaskia, and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River (e.g. Kaskaskia) founded Ste. Genevieve in the 1730s.
In early 1764, after France lost the Seven Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis.〔Hoffhaus. (1984). ''Chez Les Canses: Three Centuries at Kawsmouth'', Kansas City: Lowell Press. ISBN 0-913504-91-2.〕 (French lands east of the Mississippi had been ceded to Great Britain and the lands west of the Mississippi to Spain; France and Spain were 18th-century allies and both were Catholic nations.) The early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic servants and workers in the city.
From 1762 to 1803 European control of the area west of the Mississippi to the northernmost part of the Missouri River basin, called Louisiana, was assumed by the Spanish as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis.〔(''www.usgennet.org''. ) Attack On St. Louis: May 26, 1780.〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』