Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=648808Z Profile & Executives - Springer Science+Business Media GmbH - Bloomberg )〕 Springer also hosts a number of scientific databases, including SpringerLink, Springer Protocols, and SpringerImages. Book publications include major reference works, textbooks, monographs and book series; more than 168,000 titles are available as e-books in 24 subject collections. Springer has major offices in Berlin, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, and New York City.
On January 15, 2015, Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group / Nature Publishing Group and Springer Science+Business Media announced a merger.〔("Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and BC Partners Announce Agreement to Merge Majority of MacMillan Science and Education with Springer Science+Business Media" ), Jan. 15, 2015.〕 The transaction was concluded in May 2015 and a new joint venture company, Springer Nature, was formed, with Holtzbrinck having the majority 53% share and BC Partners retaining 47% interest in the company.
Julius Springer founded Springer-Verlag in Berlin in 1842 and his son Ferdinand Springer grew it from a small firm of 4 employees into Germany's second largest academic publisher with 65 staff in just 30 years.〔"(History )". Springer Science+Business Media.〕〔"(Chronology )". Springer Science+Business Media.〕 In 1964, Springer expanded its business internationally, opening an office in New York. Offices in Tokyo, Paris, Milan, Hong Kong, and Delhi soon followed.
The academic publishing company BertelsmannSpringer was formed after Bertelsmann bought a majority stake in Springer-Verlag in 1999.〔〔 The British investment groups Cinven and Candover bought BertelsmannSpringer from Bertelsmann in 2003.〔Poynder, Richard. "(BertelsmannSpringer is Sold to Private Equity Firms )". ''Information Today''. May 27, 2003.〕 They merged the company in 2004 with the Dutch publisher Kluwer Academic Publishers which they bought from Wolters Kluwer in 2002, to form Springer Science+Business Media.
Springer acquired the open-access publisher BioMed Central in October 2008 for an undisclosed amount.
In 2009, Cinven and Candover sold Springer to two private equity firms, EQT Partners and Government of Singapore Investment Corporation. The closing of the sale was confirmed in February 2010 after the competition authorities in the USA and in Europe approved the transfer.
In 2011, Springer acquired Pharma Marketing and Publishing Services from Wolters Kluwer.〔(【引用サイトリンク】first=Maulik )〕
In 2013, the London-based private equity firm BC Partners acquired a majority stake in Springer from EQT and GIC for $4.4 billion.
In 2014, it was revealed that Springer had published 16 fake papers in its journals that had been computer-generated using SCIgen. Springer subsequently removed all the papers from these journals. IEEE had also done the same thing by removing more than 100 fake papers from its conference proceedings.
In 2015, Springer retracted 64 of the papers it had published after it was found that they had gone through a fraudulent peer review process.
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