|common_name = South Vietnam
|continent = Asia
|region = South East Asia
|country = Vietnam
|p1 = State of Vietnam
|flag_p1 = Flag of South Vietnam.svg
|s1 = Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam
|flag_s1 = FNL Flag.svg
|image_flag = Flag of South Vietnam.svgborder
|image_coat = Coat of Arms of South Vietnam (1963 - 1975).svg
|symbol_type = Coat of arms
|image_map = LocationSouthVietnam.png
|image_map_caption = Location of South Vietnam in Southeast Asia from 1954 to 1976
|capital = Saigon
|national_motto = "Tổ quốc - Danh dự - Trách nhiệm"
(English: "Fatherland – Honor – Duty")
|national_anthem = "Tiếng Gọi Công Dân"
(English: "Call to the Citizens")
|common_languages = Vietnamese (official)
|religion = Buddhism
|government_type = Unitary semi-presidential republic (1955-1975) Under a Military junta (1963-1967)
|title_leader = President
|leader1 = Ngô Đình Diệm
|year_leader1 = 1955–1963
|leader2 = Dương Văn Minh
|year_leader2 = 1963–1964
|leader3 = |year_leader3 =
|leader4 = Phan Khắc Sửu
|year_leader4 = 1964–1965
|leader5 = Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
|year_leader5 = 1965–1975
|leader6 = Trần Văn Hương (acting)
|year_leader6 = 1975
|leader7 = Dương Văn Minh (acting)
|year_leader7 = 1975
|title_deputy = Prime Minister
|deputy1 = Nguyễn Ngọc Thơ
|year_deputy1 = 1963–1964 (first)
|deputy2 = Vũ Văn Mẫu
|year_deputy2 = 1975 (last)
|era = Cold WarVietnam War
|event_start = Referendum
|date_start = 26 October
|year_start = 1955
|event1 = 1963 coup
|date_event1 = November 1963
|event2 = Paris Peace Accords
|date_event2 = 27 January 1973
|event_end = Fall of Saigon
|date_end = 30 April
|year_end = 1975
|stat_year1 = 1955
|stat_area1 = 173809
|stat_pop1 = 12000000
|stat_year2 = 1974
|stat_area2 = 173809
|stat_pop2 = 19582000
|HDI_year = 1979
|HDI = 0.783
|HDI_rank = 53
|currency = đồnga
|footnote_a = Gradually phased in to replace the piastre.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam ((ベトナム語:Việt Nam Cộng Hòa)) was a state governing the southern half of Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. It received international recognition in 1949 as the "State of Vietnam" (1949–55), and later as the "Republic of Vietnam"〔 (1955–75). Its capital was Saigon. The term "South Vietnam" became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts.
South Vietnam's origins can be traced to the French colony of Cochinchina, which consisted of the southern third of Vietnam and was a subdivision of French Indochina. After World War II, the Viet Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh, proclaimed the establishment of a Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi in September, 1945. In 1949, anti-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, who proclaimed himself president after a referendum. After Diệm was deposed in a military ''coup'' in 1963, there was a series of short-lived military governments. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu led the country from 1967 until 1975. The Vietnam War began in 1959 with an uprising by Viet Cong forces supplied by Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Fighting climaxed during the Tet Offensive of 1968, when there were over 1.5 million South Vietnamese soldiers and 500,000 U.S. soldiers in South Vietnam. Despite a peace treaty concluded in January 1973, fighting continued until the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong army overran Saigon on 30 April 1975.
== Leaders ==
(詳細はCochinchina (''Chính phủ Cộng hoà Nam Kỳ tự trị''). The creation of this republic allowed France to evade a promise to recognise Vietnam as independent. However, Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina was only a pupet state.
*Nguyễn Văn Thinh (1946)
* 1947–48 Republic of South Vietnam〔"(French Cochinchina Sept. 1945 – 1949 )"〕 (''Chính phủ lâm thời Nam phần Việt Nam''). The Vietnamese name acknowledges Cochinchina as a unit within Vietnam.
*Nguyễn Văn Xuân (1947–48)
* 1948–49 Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (''TChính phủ lâm thời Quốc gia Việt Nam''). This "pre-Vietnam" government prepared for a unified Vietnamese state.
*Nguyễn Văn Xuân (1948–49)
* 1949–55 State of Vietnam (''Quốc gia Việt Nam''). Internationally recognized in 1950. Vietnam was partitioned at the 17th parallel in 1954. However, State of Vietnam controlled under 5% of Vietnamese territory.
*Bảo Đại (1949–55). Abdicated as emperor in 1945.
* 1955–75 Republic of Vietnam〔 (''Việt Nam Cộng Hòa''). Fought Vietnam War (1959–75) against Hanoi.
*Ngô Đình Diệm (1955–63). Once highly lauded by America, he was ousted and assassinated in a U.S.-backed ''coup''.
*In 1963–65, there were numerous coups and short-lived governments, several of which were headed by Dương Văn Minh or Nguyễn Khánh.
*Nguyễn Văn Thiệu (1965–75). Prime Minister Nguyễn Cao Kỳ was the top leader in 1965–67.
*Trần Văn Hương (1975).
*Dương Văn Minh (2nd time) (1975). Surrendered to Communists when others abandoned their posts.
* 1975–76 Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (''Chính phủ Cách mạng lâm thời Cộng hoà miền Nam Việt Nam'').
*Huỳnh Tấn Phát (1975–76)
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』