| Serbian language ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Serbian (, Gaj's Latin: ''srpski'', ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language〔David Dalby, ''Linguasphere'' (1999/2000, Linguasphere Observatory), pg. 445, 53-AAA-g, "Srpski+Hrvatski, Serbo-Croatian".〕〔Benjamin W. Fortson IV, ''Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction'', 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), pg. 431, "Because of their mutual intelligibility, Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are usually thought of as constituting one language called Serbo-Croatian."〕〔Václav Blažek, "On the Internal Classification of Indo-European Languages: Survey" (retrieved 20 Oct 2010 ), pp. 15-16.〕 used chiefly by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro,〔Montenegro Census 2011 data, Montstat, http://www.monstat.org/userfiles/file/popis2011/saopstenje/saopstenje(1).pdf〕 and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Croatia, Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.
Standard Serbian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian (more specifically on Šumadija-Vojvodina and Eastern Herzegovinian dialects), which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin.〔(Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin? Or Just 'Our Language'? ), ''Radio Free Europe'', February 21, 2009〕 The other dialect spoken by Serbs is Torlakian in southeastern Serbia, which is transitional to Macedonian and Bulgarian.
Serbian is practically the only European standard language with complete synchronic digraphia,〔http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/de-gruyter/digraphia-in-the-territories-of-the-croats-and-serbs-9biWZDK0Vs/1〕 using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets; speakers read the two scripts equally well. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created the alphabet on phonemic principles. The Latin alphabet was designed by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1830.
Serbian is a standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian,〔 ((COBISS-Sr) ).〕 a Slavic language (Indo-European), of the South Slavic subgroup. Other standardized forms of Serbo-Croatian are Bosnian, Croatian, and Montenegrin. It has lower intelligibility with the East South Slavic languages Bulgarian and Macedonian, than with Slovene (although Slovene is part of the West Slavic subgroup, it is hindered by differences in vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation to the Serbo-Croatian standard forms, and is closer to the Serbo-Croatian Kajkavian and Chakavian dialects〔Greenberg, Marc L., ''A Short Reference Grammar of Slovene,'' (''LINCOM Studies in Slavic Linguistics'' 30). Munich: LINCOM, 2008. ISBN 3-89586-965-1〕).
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