| Sega Master System ： ウィキペディア英語版|
The is a third-generation home video game console that was manufactured by Sega. It was originally released in 1985 as the Sega Mark III in Japan. After being redesigned prior to its North American launch, the console was renamed Master System and released in 1986 in North America, 1987 in Europe, and 1989 in Brazil. The redesigned Master System was also released in Japan in 1987. Both the Mark III and the original Master System models could play with both cartridges and the credit card-sized Sega Cards, which retailed at lower prices than cartridges but had lower storage capacity; the Master System II and later models did not have the card slot. The Master System also featured accessories such as a light gun and 3D glasses which were designed to work with a range of specially coded games.
Succeeding the SG-1000, the Master System was released as a direct competitor to the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in the third generation of video game consoles. The Master System was constructed with hardware superior to that of the NES, but failed to overturn Nintendo's significant market share advantage in Japan and North America. However, it attained significantly more success in Europe and Brazil. The hardware of the Master System also shared many similarities with Sega's handheld game console, the Sega Game Gear. Compared to its competition from Nintendo, the Master System's game library lacks a number of well-received titles due to Nintendo's licensing practices that restricted third-party developers from creating games for any system other than the NES. Sales of the console have been estimated between 10 and 13 million units, not including recent Brazil sales, compared to 62 million NES units sold. Reception to the system given in retrospect gives credit to the system's role in Sega's development of the Sega Genesis, as well as for having a number of well-received titles, particularly in PAL regions, but is generally critical of its smaller game library compared to the NES. As of 2015, the Master System is the longest-lived game console (26 years and continuing), due to its popularity in Brazil.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Longest-lived game consoles )〕
In the early 1980s, Sega Enterprises, Inc., then a subsidiary of the conglomerate Gulf and Western, was one of the largest arcade game manufacturers active in the United States, with company revenues of $214 million by mid-1982. A downturn in the arcade business starting in 1982 negatively impacted the company, leading Gulf and Western to sell the North American manufacturing and licensing of its arcade games to Bally Manufacturing. The company retained its Japanese subsidiary, Sega of Japan, as well as Sega's North American research and development division. With its arcade business in decline, Gulf and Western executives turned to Sega of Japan's president, Hayao Nakayama, for advice on how to proceed. Nakayama advocated that the company leverage its hardware expertise gained through years working in the arcade industry to move into the home console market in Japan, which was in its infancy at the time. Nakayama received permission to proceed with this project, leading to the release of Sega's first home video game system, the SG-1000.
The SG-1000 was first released in Japan on July 15, 1983, at a price of JP¥15,000. It was launched on the same day that Nintendo released the Famicom in Japan.〔 Shortly after the launch of the SG-1000, Gulf and Western began to divest itself of its non-core businesses after the death of company founder, Charles Bluhdorn, so Nakayama and former Sega CEO David Rosen arranged a management buyout of the Japanese subsidiary in 1984 with financial backing from CSK Corporation, a prominent Japanese software company. Nakayama was then installed as CEO of the new Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Following the buyout, Sega released another console, the SG-1000 II, for ¥15,000. It featured a few hardware tweaks from the original model, including detachable controllers.〔 The SG-1000 II did not sell well, however, leading to Sega's decision to continue work on the video game hardware used for the system. This resulted in the release of the Sega Mark III in Japan in 1985.〔
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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