|pop2 = 4,719,850
|pop3 = 1,792,600
|pop4 = 795,000
|pop5 = 760,620
|ref5 = 〔Northern Ireland#Demography〕
|pop6 = 100,000
|pop7 = 80,000
|pop8 = 45,000
|pop9 = 15,000
|pop10 = 12,792
|pop11 = 11,160
|pop12 = 2,403
|ref13 = 〔https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/274477/scotland_analysis_borders_citizenship.pdf#page=70〕〔http://www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/285746/0087034.pdf#Page=13 http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2009/09/24095045/3〕
|pop13 = 1,459
|languages = English (Scottish English)
Scottish Gaelic Scots
|religions = Presbyterianism, Roman Catholicism, Episcopalianism; other minority groups; agnostics, deists and atheists.
|footnotes = These figures are estimates based on official
census data of populations and official surveys of
Scottish Americans and Scotch-Irish Americans.
Scottish born people in England only
Number of people born in Scotland.
The Scottish people (Scots: ''Scots Fowk'', Scottish Gaelic: ''Albannaich''), or Scots, are a nation and socially defined ethnic group resident in Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two groups—the Picts and Gaels—who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or ''Alba'') in the 9th century, and thought to have been ethnolinguistically Celts. Later, the neighbouring Cumbrian Britons, who were also Celts, as well as Germanic Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation.
In modern use, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from within Scotland. The Latin word ''Scotti''〔Bede used a Latin form of the word Scots as the name of the Gaels of Dál Riata.〕 originally referred to the Gaels but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Though sometimes considered archaic or pejorative,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Scotch )〕 the term Scotch has also been used for the Scottish people, though this usage is current primarily outside Scotland.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Scotch: Definition, Synonyms from )〕〔John Kenneth Galbraith in his book ''The Scotch'' (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents how the descendants of 19th century pioneers from Scotland who settled in Southwestern Ontario affectionately referred to themselves as Scotch. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the Scotch-Canadian community in the early decades of the 20th century.〕
There are people of Scottish descent in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. There is a Scottish presence at a particularly high level in Canada, which has the highest level per-capita of Scots descendants in the world and second largest population of descended Scots ancestry, after the United States. They took with them their Scottish languages and culture.
Scotland has seen migration and settlement of peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons had respective origin myths, like most Middle Ages European peoples.〔The Venerable Bede tells of the Scotti coming from Spain via Ireland and the Picts coming from Scythia. 〕 Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled many regions of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom and the majority of people living in Scotland are British citizens.
==Ethnic groups of Scotland==
In the Early Middle Ages, Scotland had several ethnic or cultural groups labelled as such in contemporary sources, namely the Picts, the Gaels, the Britons, with the Angles settling in the southeast of the country. Culturally, these peoples are grouped according to language. Most of Scotland until the 13th century spoke Celtic languages and these included, at least initially, the Britons, as well as the Gaels and the Picts.〔Jackson, "The Language of the Picts", discussed by Forsyth, ''Language in Pictland''.〕 Germanic peoples included the Angles of Northumbria, who settled in south-eastern Scotland in the region between the Firth of Forth to the north and the River Tweed to the south. They also occupied the south-west of Scotland up to and including the Plain of Kyle and their language, Old English, was the earliest form of the language which eventually became known as Scots. Later the Norse arrived in the north and west in quite significant numbers, recently discovered to have left about thirty percent of men in the Outer Hebrides with a distinct, Norse marker in their DNA.
Use of the Gaelic language spread throughout nearly the whole of Scotland by the 9th century,〔()〕 reaching a peak in the 11th to 13th centuries, but was never the language of the south-east of the country.〔
After the division of Northumbria between Scotland and England by King Edgar (or after the later Battle of Carham; it is uncertain, but most medieval historians now accept the earlier 'gift' by Edgar) the Scottish kingdom encompassed a great number of English people, with larger numbers quite possibly arriving after the Norman invasion of England (contemporary populations cannot be estimated so we cannot tell which population thenceforth formed the majority). South-east of the Firth of Forth then in Lothian and the Borders (OE: ''Loðene''), a northern variety of Old English, also known as Early Scots, was spoken.
As a result of David I, King of Scots' return from exile in England in 1113, ultimately to assume the throne in 1124 with the help of Norman military force, David invited Norman families from France and England to settle in lands he granted them to spread a ruling class loyal to him.〔Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", p. 13.〕 This Davidian Revolution, as many historians call it, brought a European style of feudalism to Scotland along with an influx of people of Norman descent - by invitation, unlike England where it was by conquest. To this day, many of the common family names of Scotland can trace ancestry to Normans from this period, such as the Stewarts, the Bruces, the Hamiltons, the Wallaces, the Melvilles, some Browns and many others.
The Northern Isles and some parts of Caithness were Norn-speaking (the west of Caithness was Gaelic-speaking into the 20th Century, as were some small communities in parts of the Central Highlands). From 1200 to 1500 the Early Scots language spread across the lowland parts of Scotland between Galloway and the Highland line, being used by Barbour in his historical epic "The Brus" in the late 14th century in Aberdeen.
From 1500 until recent years, Scotland was commonly divided by language into two groups of people, Gaelic-speaking "Highlanders" (the language formerly called Scottis by English speakers and known by many Lowlanders in the 18th century as "Irish") and the Inglis-speaking "Lowlanders" (a language later to be called Scots, often considered a dialect of English). Today, immigrants have brought other languages, but almost every adult throughout Scotland is fluent in the English language.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』