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Santa Monica : ウィキペディア英語版
Santa Monica, California

|subdivision_type1 = State
|subdivision_name1 =
|subdivision_type2 = County
|subdivision_name2 = Los Angeles
| established_title = Spanish encampment
| established_date = August 3, 1769
| established_title1 = Incorporated
| established_date1 = November 30, 1886
| founder =
| government_type = Council–manager
| leader_title = Mayor
| leader_name = Kevin McKeown
| unit_pref = US

| area_footnotes =
| area_water_percent =
| area_total_sq_mi = 8.416
| area_land_sq_mi = 8.415
| area_water_sq_mi = 0.001

| elevation_footnotes =
| elevation_ft = 105

|population_as_of = April 1, 2010
|population_footnotes =
|population_total = 89736
|pop_est_as_of = 2013
|pop_est_footnotes = 〔
|population_est = 92472
|population_density_sq_mi = auto

| timezone1 = Pacific
| utc_offset1 = -8
| timezone1_DST = PDT
| utc_offset1_DST = -7
| postal_code_type = ZIP codes
| postal_code = 90401–90411
| area_code_type = Area codes
| area_code = 310/424
| blank_name = FIPS code
| blank_info = 〔(【引用サイトリンク】publisher=United States Census Bureau )〕
| blank1_name = GNIS feature IDs
| blank1_info = ,
| website =
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, United States. The city is named after the Christian saint, Monica. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los AngelesPacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, Sawtelle on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, and Venice on the south. Santa Monica is home to many Hollywood celebrities and executives and is a mixture of affluent single-family neighborhoods, renters, surfers, professionals, and students. The Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736.
Partly because of its agreeable climate, Santa Monica had become a famed resort town by the early 20th century. The city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism.
(詳細はTongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language.〔Munro, Pamela, et al. ''Yaara' Shiraaw'ax 'Eyooshiraaw'a. Now You're Speaking Our Language: Gabrielino/Tongva/Fernandeño''. Lulu.com: 2008.〕 The first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. There are two different versions of the naming of the city. One says that it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica (mother of Saint Augustine), but her feast day is actually May 4. Another version says that it was named by Father Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs (Serra Springs), that were reminiscent of the tears that Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety.〔Paula A. Scott, ''Santa Monica: a history on the edge. Making of America series'' (Arcadia Publishing, 2004), 17–18.〕
In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. Following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848.
In the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, and a wharf out into the bay. The first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building, later a beer hall, and now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure. By 1885, the town's first hotel, was the Santa Monica Hotel.
Amusement piers became enormously popular in the first decades of the 20th century and the extensive Pacific Electric Railroad brought people to the city's beaches from across the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in or near Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was located near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in both Santa Monica and Venice. The two ethnic minorities were often viewed differently by White Americans who were often well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an integral economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community.〔Mark McIntire, (Minorities and Racism ), ''Free Venice Beachhead'' #126, June 1980.〕
Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field (Santa Monica Airport) for the Douglas Aircraft Company.〔Parker, Dana T. ''Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II,'' pp. 13–24, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.〕 In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes made it back, after having covered in 175 days, and were greeted on their return September 23, 1924, by a crowd of 200,000 (generously estimated). The Douglas Company (later McDonnell Douglas) kept facilities in the city until the 1960s.
The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply. One report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000. Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt. In the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica (along with neighboring Los Angeles).The federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings in the city, most notably ''City Hall''. The main ''Post Office'' and ''Barnum Hall'' (Santa Monica High School auditorium) were also among several other WPA projects.
Douglas's business grew astronomically with the onset of World War II, employing as many as 44,000 people in 1943. To defend against air attack set designers from the Warner Brothers Studios prepared elaborate camouflage that disguised the factory and airfield.〔Herman, Arthur. ''Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II,'' pp. 202–3, Random House, New York, NY, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.〕〔Parker, Dana T. ''Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II,'' pp. 7–48., Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.〕 The RAND Corporation began as a project of the Douglas Company in 1945, and spun off into an independent think tank on May 14, 1948. RAND eventually acquired a 15-acre (61,000 m²) campus centrally located between the Civic Center and the pier entrance.
The completion of the Santa Monica Freeway in 1966 brought the promise of new prosperity, though at the cost of decimating the Pico neighborhood that had been a leading African American enclave on the Westside.
Beach volleyball is believed to have been developed by Duke Kahanamoku in Santa Monica during the 1920s.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
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