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Royal Audiencia of Quito : ウィキペディア英語版
Royal Audiencia of Quito

The Royal Audience of Quito ((スペイン語:Real Audiencia de Quito), sometimes referred to as ''la Presidencia de Quito'' or ''el Reino de Quito'') was an administrative unit in the Spanish Empire which had political, military, and religious jurisdiction over territories that today include Ecuador, parts of northern Peru, parts of southern Colombia and parts of northern Brazil. It was created by Royal Decree on 29 August 1563 by Philip II of Spain in the city of Guadalajara (Law X of Title XV of Book II of the ''Recopilación de Leyes de Indias''). It ended in 1822 with the incorporation of the area into the Republic of Gran Colombia, which had been established in 1819.
==Structure==
The 1563 decree established its structure and district:
In the City of San Francisco of El Quito, in Peru, shall reside another Royal ''Audiencia'' and Chancellery of ours, with a president; four judges of civil cases (), who will also be judges of criminal cases (del crimen'' ); a crown attorney (); a bailiff (mayor'' ); a lieutenant of the Gran Chancellor; and the other necessary ministers and officials; and which shall have for district the Province of Quito, and along the coast towards the Ciudad de los Reyes () to the Port of Paita, exclusive; and inland towards Piura, Cajamarca, Chachapoyas, Moyobamba and Motilones, exclusive, including towards the aforesaid part the towns of Jaén, Valladolid, Loja, Zamora, Cuenca, La Zarza and Guayaquil, with the rest of the towns, which are in their districts or will be founded (them ); and towards the towns of La Canela and Quijos, it should include said towns and the rest that shall be discovered; and along the coast towards Panama, until the Port of Buenaventura, inclusive; and inland to Pasto, Popayán, Cali, Buga, Chapanchinca and Guarchicona; because the rest of the places of the Government (''Gobernación'') of Popayan are of the ''Audiencia'' of the New Kingdom of Granada, with which, and with the one of Tierrafirme (), it shall share a border on the north; and with the one of Los Reyes in the south; having for its western border the South Sea (Ocean ) and eastern the provinces still not yet pacified nor discovered.

The ''Audiencia'' was effectively autonomous because the Viceroyal government (to which the ''Audiencia'' was technically subordinate in political matters) was too far away to administer its territories effectively. Thus, power was devolved to the ''Audiencia'' by the Viceroy and the ''audiencia'' territory was directly administered by the President of the ''Audiencia'' and the political, military, and religious officials underneath him. Initially the ''Audiencia'' of Quito formed part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (1563–1717) and (1723–1739). Later the ''Audiencia'' was part of a newly created Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada (1717–1723). This Viceroyalty was temporarily suppressed by the King of Spain in 1723 and the ''Audiencia'' of Quito returned to the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1739, the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada was re-established and the ''Audiencia'' of Quito was returned to it until it declared itself independent from Spain in 1822. Ecuador joined the territories of what is today Venezuela, Colombia and Panama to form the Republic of Colombia.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
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