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Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: ''română'', ''limba română'' , "the Romanian language", or ''românește'', lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.〔The Latin Union reports 28 million speakers for Romanian, out of whom 24 million are native speakers of the language: ''Latin Union – The odyssey of languages:'' (ro ), (es ), (fr ), (it ), (pt ); see also (Ethnologue report for Romanian )〕 It has official status in Romania, the Republic of Moldova, the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in Serbia, and the autonomous monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. It is one of the official languages of the European Union and the Latin Union.
Romanian is a part of the Balkan-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin separated from the Western Romance during the 5th-8th centuries.〔"Istoria limbii române" ("History of the Romanian Language"), II, Academia Română, Bucharest, 1969〕 To distinguish it within that group in comparative linguistics it is called ''Daco-Romanian'' as opposed to its closest relatives, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian, respectively.
During Soviet times—and to some extent even today—Romanian was called ''Moldovan'' in the Republic of Moldova, although the Constitutional Court ruled in 2013 that the official language of the republic is "Romanian".
Romanian speakers are scattered across many other countries, notably Australia, Italy, Spain, Ukraine, Bulgaria, the United States, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Russia, Portugal, the United Kingdom, Cyprus, France, and Germany.
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