Romanesque Revival architecture
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Romanesque Revival (or Neo-Romanesque) is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century〔Whiffen, Marcus. ''American Architecture Since 1780: A guide to the styles''. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1969, 61.〕 inspired by the 11th and 12th century Romanesque architecture. Unlike the historic Romanesque style, however, Romanesque Revival buildings tended to feature more simplified arches and windows than their historic counterparts.
An early variety of Romanesque Revival style known as Rundbogenstil ("Round-arched style") was popular in German lands〔Fleming, John, Hugh Honour and Nikolaus Pevsner. ''The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture''. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1983.〕 and in the German diaspora beginning in the 1830s. By far the most prominent and influential American architect working in a free "Romanesque" manner was Henry Hobson Richardson. In the United States, the style derived from examples set by him are termed Richardsonian Romanesque, of which not all are Romanesque Revival.〔Wilson, Richard Guy. ''Buildings of Virginia: Tidewater and Piedmont''Oxford University Press, 2002, 524–5.〕
Romanesque Revival is also sometimes referred to as the "Norman style" or "Lombard style," particularly in works published during the nineteenth century after variations of historic Romanesque that were developed by the Normans and Lombards, respectively.
Like its influencing Romanesque style, the Romanesque Revival style was widely used for churches, and occasionally for synagogues such as the Congregation Emanu-El of New York on Fifth Avenue built in 1929.〔Stern, Robert A.M., Gregory Gilmartin and Thomas Mellins. ''New York 1930: Architecture and Urbanism Between the Two World Wars''. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1987, 161.〕
The style was quite popular for university campuses in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, especially in the United States and Canada; well known examples can be found at the University of California, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Tulane University, University of Denver, and the University of Toronto.
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