Romanesco is a regional language or sociolect subsumed within the Italian language spoken in Rome. It is part of the Central Italian dialects and is thus genetically closer to the Tuscan dialect and Standard Italian.
There exist a few notable grammatical and idiomatic differences from Standard Italian. Rich in expressions and sayings, Romanesco is used for informal communication by most natives of Rome, often in a mix with Italian.
The medieval Roman dialect was a dialect belonging to the central-southern family, and much closer to the Neapolitan dialect than to the Florentine.〔 Typical example of Romanesco of that period is the ''Vita di Cola di Rienzo'', written by a Roman anonymous during the 14th century. Starting with the 16th century, the Roman dialect underwent a stronger and stronger influence from the Tuscan dialect (from which modern Italian derives) starting with the reigns of the two Medici popes (Leo X and Clement VII) and with the Sack of Rome in 1527, two events which both provoked a large immigration from central Italy. Therefore, current Romanesco has grammar and roots rather different from other dialects in the Central Italian region.〔
The path towards a progressive Tuscanisation of the dialect can be observed through the works of the major Romanesco writers and poets of the last two centuries: Giuseppe Gioachino Belli (1791-1863), whose ''sonetti romaneschi'' represent the most important work in this dialect and an eternal monument to 19th century Roman people; Cesare Pascarella (1858-1940); Giggi Zanazzo (1860-1911); and Carlo Alberto Salustri (1871-1940), nicknamed Trilussa.
Before Rome became the capital city of Italy, Romanesco was spoken only inside the walls of the city, while the little towns surrounding Rome had their own dialects; nowadays these dialects have almost disappeared and they have been replaced with a kind of Romanesco, which therefore is now spoken in an area larger than the original one, as well as slightly pervading the everyday language of most of the immigrants that live in the city.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』