The Roman Republic ((ラテン語:Res publica Romana); ) was the period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries of its existence the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. By the following century it included North Africa, Spain, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France, Greece, and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of civil wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar, which led to the transition from republic to empire. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation. Historians have variously proposed Julius Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon River in 49 BC, Caesar's appointment as dictator for life in 44 BC, and the defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. However, most use the same date as did the ancient Romans themselves, the Roman Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian and his adopting the title Augustus in 27 BC, as the defining event ending the Republic.
Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners. Over time, the laws that gave patricians exclusive rights to Rome's highest offices were repealed or weakened, and leading plebeian families became full members of the aristocracy. The leaders of the Republic developed a strong tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military and political success inextricably linked. Many of Rome's legal and legislative structures (later codified into the Justinian Code, and again into the Napoleonic Code) can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states and international organizations.
(詳細はGreek hegemonies of the same period) with varying degrees of genuine independence (which itself changed over time) engaged in an alliance of mutual self-protection, but led by Rome.〔Eckstein, Arthur. "Rome Enters the Greek East". p22〕 With some important exceptions, successful wars in early republican Rome generally led not to annexation or military occupation, but to the restoration of the ''way things were''. But the defeated city would be weakened (sometimes with outright land concessions) and thus less able to resist Romanizing influences, such as Roman settlers seeking land or trade with the growing Roman confederacy. It was also less able to defend itself against its non-Roman enemies, which made attack by these enemies more likely. It was, therefore, more likely to seek an alliance of protection with Rome.〔Madden, Thomas. "Empires of Trust". p.25〕
This growing coalition expanded the potential enemies that Rome might face, and moved Rome closer to confrontation with major powers.〔Madden, Thomas. "Empires of Trust". p.53〕 The result was more alliance-seeking, on the part of both the Roman confederacy and city-states seeking membership (and protection) within that confederacy. While there were exceptions to this (such as military rule of Sicily after the First Punic War),〔Madden, Thomas. "Empires of Trust". p.43〕 it was not until after the Second Punic War that these alliances started to harden into something more like an empire, at least in certain locations.〔Lane Fox, ''The Classical World'', p. 287〕 This shift mainly took place in parts of the west, such as the southern Italian towns that sided with Hannibal.
In contrast, Roman expansion into Spain and Gaul occurred as a mix of alliance-seeking and military occupation.〔Eckstein, Arthur. "Rome Enters the Greek East". p23〕 In the 2nd century BC, Roman involvement in the Greek east remained a matter of alliance-seeking, but this time in the face of major powers that could rival Rome.〔Eckstein, Arthur. "Rome Enters the Greek East". p.24〕 According to Polybius,〔Eckstein, Arthur. "Rome Enters the Greek East". p12〕 who sought to trace how Rome came to dominate the Greek east in less than a century, this was mainly a matter of several Greek city-states seeking Roman protection against the Macedonian kingdom and Seleucid Empire in the face of destabilisation created by the weakening of Ptolemaic Egypt.〔Eckstein, Arthur. "Rome Enters the Greek East". p.40〕 In contrast to the west, the Greek east had been dominated by major empires for centuries, and Roman influence and alliance-seeking led to wars with these empires that further weakened them and therefore created an unstable power vacuum that only Rome could fill.〔Eckstein, Arthur. "Rome Enters the Greek East". p.45〕 This had some important similarities to (and important differences from) the events in Italy centuries earlier, but this time on a global scale.
Historians〔Goldsworthy, ''In the Name of Rome'', p. 36〕 see the growing Roman influence over the east, as with the west, as not a matter of intentional empire-building, but constant crisis management narrowly focused on short-term goals within a highly unstable, unpredictable, and inter-dependent network of alliances and dependencies.〔Eckstein, Arthur. "Rome Enters the Greek East". p.38〕 With some major exceptions of outright military rule, the Roman Republic remained an alliance of independent city-states and kingdoms (with varying degrees of independence, both ''de jure'' and ''de facto'') until it transitioned into the Roman Empire.〔Madden, Thomas. "Empires of Trust". p.62〕 It was not until the time of the Roman Empire that the entire Roman world was organized into provinces under explicit Roman control.〔Madden, Thomas. "Empires of Trust". p.64〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』