| Rolls-Royce Merlin ： ウィキペディア英語版|
''This article is about Rolls-Royce designed and built variants of the Merlin. For Packard built variants see: Packard V-1650''
The Rolls-Royce Merlin is a British liquid-cooled, V-12, piston aero engine, of 27-litre (1,650 cu in) capacity. Rolls-Royce Limited designed and built the engine as a private venture. Initially known as the PV-12, it was later called ''Merlin'' following the company convention of naming its piston aero engines after birds of prey.
The PV-12 first ran in 1933 and, after several modifications, the first production variants were built in 1936. The first operational aircraft to enter service using the Merlin were the Fairey Battle, Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire. More Merlins were made for the four-engined Avro Lancaster heavy bomber than for any other aircraft; however, the engine is most closely associated with the Spitfire, starting with the Spitfire's maiden flight in 1936. A series of rapidly applied developments, brought about by wartime needs, markedly improved the engine's performance and durability.
One of the most successful aircraft engines of the World War II era, some fifty marks of Merlin were built by Rolls-Royce in Derby, Crewe and Glasgow, as well as by Ford of Britain at their Trafford Park factory, near Manchester.〔Pugh 2000, pp. 192–198.〕〔Harvey-Bailey 1995, pp. 12, 16.〕 The Packard V-1650 was a version of the Merlin built in the United States, and was the primary engine used in the North American P-51 Mustang. Production ceased in 1950 after 160,000 engines had been delivered, the later variants being used for airliners and military transport aircraft.〔Harvey-Bailey 1995, p. 90.〕
In military use the Merlin was superseded by its larger-capacity stablemate, the Rolls-Royce Griffon. Merlin engines remain in Royal Air Force service today with the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, and power many restored aircraft in private ownership worldwide.
==Design and development==
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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