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Rino Gaetano : ウィキペディア英語版
Rino Gaetano

Salvatore Antonio "Rino" Gaetano (29 October 1950 – 2 June 1981) was an Italian musician and singer-songwriter. He is famous for his satirical songs and oblique yet incisive political commentary. He is remembered for his rough voice, the biting irony of his songs and social protest hidden behind seemingly light lyrics. While he avoided taking any sides politically and refused to be labelled, his songs are full of astute political commentary. A much-loved national hero, he died in mysterious circumstances in a tragic and untimely car accident at the age of thirty. His songs, however, are still widely sung and played, and he is still a hugely popular and influential figure.
Salvatore Antonio Gaetano was born in Crotone, in the southern Italian region of Calabria. His family called him "Salvatorino", an affectionate nickname which translated into English would be 'Little Salvatore'. His sister Anna however preferred the name 'Rino' and it stuck, a name which would later come to dominate Italian music and culture.
In March 1960, at the age of nine, his family moved to Rome, where he would spend the rest of his life. In 1961, he was sent to study at the seminary ''Piccola Opera del Sacro Cuore'' of Narni, in the province of Terni, where under the guidance of his teacher Renato Simeoni, he began to show his flair for writing poetry. By 1967 he had finished school and living back in Rome, he created a quartet with a group of friends called Krounks, who would mainly play cover songs. They were inspired by Italian artists such as Enzo Jannacci, Fabrizio De André, Adriano Celentano, , and Ricky Gianco as well as international musicians such as Bob Dylan and The Beatles.
In 1969, Rino approached Folkstudio, a well-known club in Rome for promoting young artists. Rino's style proved to be very different from that of the other musicians. His strong use of irony caused concerns for the club managers, as Rino recounted:
"When I sang at Folkstudio, it was the centre of discussions....in fact they did not want me to do many of my pieces because they thought I wanted to make fun of everyone."
However, Rino was a multi-talented performer and during the early 1970s, in addition to gigging, he performed in cabarets and took part in several plays including playing the role of Estragon in Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot, the Fox in a production of Pinocchio by the legendary Italian director Carmelo Bene and reciting poetry by Majakovsky.
Gaetano was an accomplished actor and it was through his theatre experience that he developed much of his subsequent stage style and writing technique. He was inspired by German kabarett, a form of theatre that excels in political satire. Wikipedia describes this as "unlike comedians who make fun of all kind of things, Kabarett artists (German: Kabarettisten) pride themselves as dedicated almost completely to political and social topics of more serious nature which they criticize using techniques like cynicism, sarcasm and irony." They were able to deal with social themes and political developments through their acts, something that inspired Gaetano and can be seen in many of his concepts and staging, for example, in his song ' regarding the oil crisis of the 1970s. It enabled him to make political observations while avoiding censorship. Gaetano cited Ionesco as his favourite playwright, one of the foremost writers of Theatre of the Absurd, saying that he explored the usual problem of the inability to truly communicate, isolation and exclusion. He developed a comedy act with his friend Bruno Francelleschi, 'Ad esempio a me piace...' (For example, I like...), as a mixture of theatre and music.
In addition to his performing, Rino studied accountancy, encouraged by his father to pursue a secure career in banking. Rino asked for one more year to break into music and in 1972, he recorded his first 45 rpm record with the Milan-based containing the songs ''Jacqueline'' and ''La ballata di Renzo'', the song with famously features lyrics that echo details of Gaetano's death. The disc was not printed and Rino signed with Vincenzo Micocci, releasing his first single in 1973, ' (with "Jaqueline" on the B-side) produced by RosVeMon, the surnames of Aurelio Rossitto, Antonello Venditti and Piero Montanari. In this song, Gaetano exhibits his multicultural education, singing in four languages - English, Italian, German and French. Rino decided to release the single under the pseudonym of Kammamuri as tribute to a character in Pirates of Malaysia by Emilio Salgari. According Micocci the choice of using a pseudonym was a sign of shyness and insecurity of Gaetano:
"He considered himself a writer, not a singer. He believed he didn't have a good voice, so that after the release of ''I Love You Marianna'', when the time came to record his first album, he came and told me that it would be better to get someone else to sing the songs. I, of course, I laughed and sent him in the studio."
In 1974, he published his first album, '. The LP featured many of the themes that would characterise his work, such as issues of isolation, marginalisation and exclusion, as well as his lively style and intelligent, witty lyrics. His songs began to be played on radio stations and in the same year, through record company RCA, Rino wrote three songs for Nicola Di Bari ''Prova a chiamarmi amore'', ''Questo amore così grande'' and ''Ad esempio a me piace... il Sud'', included in the album ''Ti fa bella l'amore''. The Spanish version of ''Ad esempio a me piace... il Sud'', ''Por ejemplo'', achieved great success in Latin America.
Success for Gaetano came the following year with the 45 rpm hit record ' (''But the sky is always bluer''), perhaps now the most famous and instantly recognisable of all his songs. Unusually, the 45 contained only one song, but it was split into two. In this song Rino, offers several pictures of everyday life, between irony, clichés and contradictions. In September 1975, the singer explained some of this thinking in an article in the weekly Italian music magazine, : "These pictures are sad, never happy, because I wanted to emphasise that nowadays there are few cheerful things and it is for this reason that I take into account those who die at work. Even the verse "who plays Sanremo" is sad and negative, because anyone who plays Sanremo, doesn't think of those who "live in barracks".

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
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