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Renaissance humanist : ウィキペディア英語版
Renaissance humanism

Humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
The terms for this movement Renaissance (''rinascimento'' "rebirth") and "humanist" (whence modern ''humanism''; also ''Renaissance humanism'' to distinguish it from later developments grouped as humanism) are contemporary to that period.〔The term ''la rinascita'' (rebirth) first appeared, however, in its broad sense in Giorgio Vasari's ''Vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori Italiani'' (The Lives of the Artists, 1550, revised 1568) Panofsky, Erwin. ''Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art'', New York: Harper and Row, 1960.
"The term ''umanista'' was used, in fifteenth-century Italian academic slang to describe a teacher or student of classical literature and the arts associated with it, including that of rhetoric. The English equivalent 'humanist' makes its appearance in the late sixteenth century with a similar meaning. Only in the nineteenth century, however, and probably for the first time in Germany in 1809, is the attribute transformed into a substantive: ''humanism'', standing for devotion to the literature of ancient Greece and Rome, and the humane values that may be derived from them" Nicholas Mann "The Origins of Humanism", ''Cambridge Companion to Humanism'', Jill Kraye, editor (University Press, 1996 ), p. 1–2). The term "Middle Ages" for the preceding period separating classical antiquity from its "rebirth" first appears in Latin in 1469 as ''media tempestas''.〕
Renaissance humanism was a response to the utilitarian approach and what came to be depicted as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism.〔Craig W. Kallendorf, introduction to ''Humanist Educational Treatises'', edited and translated by Craig W. Kallendorf (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London England: The I Tatti Renaissance Library, 2002) p. vii.〕 Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions. This was to be accomplished through the study of the ''studia humanitatis'', today known as the humanities: grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, and moral philosophy.
According to one scholar of the movement,
Early Italian humanism, which in many respects continued the grammatical and rhetorical traditions of the Middle Ages, not merely provided the old Trivium with a new and more ambitious name (''Studia humanitatis''), but also increased its actual scope, content and significance in the curriculum of the schools and universities and in its own extensive literary production. The ''studia humanitatis'' excluded logic, but they added to the traditional grammar and rhetoric not only history, Greek, and moral philosophy, but also made poetry, once a sequel of grammar and rhetoric, the most important member of the whole group.〔Paul Oskar Kristeller, ''Renaissance Thought II: Papers on Humanism and the Arts'' (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1965), p. 178. See also Kristeller's ''Renaissance Thought I'', "Humanism and Scholasticism In the Italian Renaissance", ''Byzantion 17'' (1944–45), pp. 346–74. Reprinted in ''Renaissance Thought'' (New York: Harper Torchbooks), 1961.〕
Humanism was a pervasive cultural mode and not the program of a small elite, a program to revive the cultural legacy, literary legacy, and moral philosophy of classical antiquity. There were important centres of humanism in Florence, Naples, Rome, Venice, Genoa, Mantua, Ferrara, and Urbino.
Some of the first humanists were great collectors of antique manuscripts, including Petrarch, Coluccio Salutati, and Poggio Bracciolini. Of the three, Petrarch was dubbed the "Father of Humanism" because of his devotion to Greek and Roman scrolls. Many worked for the organized Church and were in holy orders (like Petrarch), while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities (such as Petrarch's disciple Salutati, the Chancellor of Florence) and thus had access to book copying workshops.
In Italy, the humanist educational program won rapid acceptance and, by the mid-fifteenth century, many of the upper classes had received humanist educations. Some of the highest officials of the Church were humanists with the resources to amass important libraries. Such was Cardinal Basilios Bessarion, a convert to the Latin Church from Greek Orthodoxy, who was considered for the papacy and was one of the most learned scholars of his time. There were several fifteenth-century and early sixteenth-century humanist Popes〔They include Innocent VII, Nicholas V, Pius II, Sixtus IV, Alexander VI, Julius II and Leo X. Innocent VII, patron of Leonardo Bruni, is considered the first humanist Pope. See ( James Hankins, ''Plato in the Italian Renaissance'' (New York: Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition, 1990), p. 49 ); for the others, see their respective entries in Sir John Hale's ''Concise Encyclopaedia of the Italian Renaissance'' (Oxford University Press, 1981).〕 one of whom, Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (Pius II), was a prolific author and wrote a treatise on "The Education of Boys".〔See ''Humanist Educational Treatises'', (2001) pp. 126–259. This volume (pp. 92–125) contains an essay by Leonardo Bruni, entitled "The Study of Literature", on the education of girls.〕 These subjects came to be known as the humanities, and the movement which they inspired is shown as humanism.
Italian Humanism spread northward to France, Germany, the Low Countries, and England with the adoption of large-scale printing after the end of the era of incunabula (or books printed prior to 1501), and it became associated with the Protestant Reformation. In France, pre-eminent Humanist Guillaume Budé (1467–1540) applied the philological methods of Italian Humanism to the study of antique coinage and to legal history, composing a detailed commentary on Justinian's Code. Budé was a royal absolutist (and not a republican like the early Italian ''umanisti'') who was active in civic life, serving as a diplomat for François I and helping to found the Collège des Lecteurs Royaux (later the Collège de France). Meanwhile, Marguerite de Navarre, the sister of François I, was a poet, novelist, and religious mystic〔She was the author of ''Miroir de l'ame pecheresse'' (''The Mirror of a Sinful Soul''), published after her death, among other devotional poetry. See also "Marguerite de Navarre: Religious Reformist" in Jonathan A. Reid, ( ''King's sister--queen of dissent: Marguerite of Navarre (1492-1549) and her evangelical network'' ) (''Studies in medieval and Reformation traditions, 1573-4188''; v. 139). Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2009. (2 v.: (xxii, 795 p.) ISBN 978-90-04-17760-4 (v. 1), 9789004177611 (v. 2)〕 who gathered around her and protected a circle of vernacular poets and writers, including Clément Marot, Pierre de Ronsard, and François Rabelais.

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