Reconstruction in Afghanistan
| Reconstruction in Afghanistan ： ウィキペディア英語版|
After more than two decades of conflict, the Reconstruction of Afghanistan has begun, though it continues to be hampered by continuing conflict.
The reconstruction process of Afghanistan began in 2002. There are more than 14,000 reconstruction projects under way in Afghanistan, such as the Kajaki and the Salma Dam.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Afghanistan: NATO Pleased With Offensive, But Goals Still Unmet )〕 Many of these projects are being supervised by the Provincial Reconstruction Teams. The World Bank contribution is the multilateral Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF), which was set up in 2002. It is financed by 24 international donor countries and has spent more than $1.37 billion as of 2007. Approximately 30 billion dollars have been provided by the international community for the reconstruction of Afghanistan, most of it from the United States. In 2002, the world community allocated $4 billion at the Tokyo conference followed by another $4 billion in 2004. In February 2006, $10.5 billion were committed for Afghanistan at the London Conference〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Government to have greater control over aid pledged in London )〕 and $11 billion from the United States in early 2007. Despite these vast investments by the international community, the reconstruction effort's results have been mixed. Implementation of development projects at the district and sub-district level has been frequently marred by lack of coordination, knowledge of local conditions, and sound planning on the side of international donors as well as by corruption and inefficiency on the side of Afghan government officials. On the provincial and national level, projects such as the National Solidarity Programme, inter-provincial road construction, and the US-led revamping of rural health services have met with more success.
One major development goal is the completion of the ring road - a series of highways linking the major cities of Afghanistan.〔(Afghanistan: Ring Road's Completion Would Benefit Entire Region )〕〔(Road reconstruction map )〕
The United States has poured tens of billions of dollars into the reconstruction effort. It has established the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction to provide oversight. This office is presently headed by John Sopko. In September Sopko said in connexion with the effort, "all I'm seeing is a modus operandi that's woefully out of touch at best, and delusional at worst". He also said, "It seems that time and again, people have to be reminded that Afghanistan is not Kansas". He complained that many people, especially at USAID, design programmes "without considering the fact that you have a tribal government, that you have a criminal element there". He said that although 8 billion dollars had been spent combatting the narcotics trade, he thought the effort overall was an abject failure. More acres are growing opium, more opium is being produced, there are tighter relationships between the opium traffickers and the terrorists (who are getting more money), and there are more Afghan addicts. But American officials consider it a success because they have trained a certain number of narcotics police, prosecutors, et cetera.〔(BBC Newshour, Sept. 21, 2015 ).〕
== Foreign Assistance ==
Kazakhstan is providing food and development assistance to Afghanistan. Kazakhstan has delivered $20 million worth food products since 2002 and $50 million in scholarships for Afghan students to study in Kazakhstan.
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