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Punch (magazine) : ウィキペディア英語版
Punch (magazine)

''Punch'', or ''The London Charivari'' was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire established in 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells. Historically, it was most influential in the 1840s and 1850s, when it helped to coin the term "cartoon" in its modern sense as a humorous illustration.

After the 1940s, when its circulation peaked, it went into a long decline, closing in 1992. It was revived in 1996, but closed again in 2002.
== History ==
''Punch'' was founded on 17 July 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells, on an initial investment of £25. It was jointly edited by Mayhew and Mark Lemon. It was subtitled ''The London Charivari'' in homage to Charles Philipon's French satirical humour magazine ''Le Charivari''. Reflecting their satiric and humorous intent, the two editors took for their name and masthead the anarchic glove puppet, Mr. Punch, of Punch and Judy; the name also referred to a joke made early on about one of the magazine's first editors, Lemon, that "punch is nothing without lemon". Mayhew ceased to be joint editor in 1842 and became "suggestor in chief" until he severed his c in 1845. The magazine initially struggled for readers, except for an 1842 "Almanack" issue which shocked its creators by selling 90,000 copies. In December 1842 due to financial difficulties the magazine was sold to Bradbury and Evans, both printers and publishers. Bradbury and Evans capitalised on newly evolving mass printing technologies and also were the publishers for Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray.
The term "cartoon" to refer to comic drawings was first used in ''Punch'' in 1843, when the Houses of Parliament were to be decorated with murals, and "cartoons" for the mural were displayed for the public; the term "cartoon" then meant a finished preliminary sketch on a large piece of cardboard, or in Italian. ''Punch'' humorously appropriated the term to refer to its political cartoons, and the popularity of the ''Punch'' cartoons led to the term's widespread use.
The illustrator Archibald Henning designed the cover of the magazine's first issues. The cover design varied in the early years, though Richard Doyle designed what became the magazine's masthead in 1849. Artists who published in ''Punch'' during the 1840s and 50s included John Leech, Richard Doyle, John Tenniel and Charles Keene. This group became known as "The ''Punch'' Brotherhood", which also included Charles Dickens who joined Bradbury and Evans after leaving Chapman and Hall in 1843.〔 ''Punch'' authors and artists also contributed to another Bradbury and Evans literary magazine called ''Once A Week'' (est.1859), created in response to Dickens' departure from ''Household Words''.〔
In the 1860s and 1870s, conservative ''Punch'' faced competition from upstart liberal journal ''Fun'', but after about 1874, ''Fun'''s fortunes faded. At Evans's café in London, the two journals had "Round tables" in competition with each other.〔See (Schoch, Richard, ''Performing Bohemia'' (2004) ) (copy downloaded 13 October 2006). 〕
After months of financial difficulty and lack of market success, ''Punch'' became a staple for British drawing rooms because of its sophisticated humour and absence of offensive material, especially when viewed against the satirical press of the time. ''The Times'' and the Sunday paper ''News of the World'' used small pieces from ''Punch'' as column fillers, giving the magazine free publicity and indirectly granting a degree of respectability, a privilege not enjoyed by any other comic publication. ''Punch'' would share a friendly relationship with not only ''The Times'' but journals aimed at intellectual audiences such as the ''Westminster Review'', which published a fifty-three page illustrated article on ''Punch's'' first two volumes. Historian Richard Altick writes that "To judge from the number of references to it in the private letters and memoirs of the 1840s...''Punch'' had become a household word within a year or two of its founding, beginning in the middle class and soon reaching the pinnacle of society, royalty itself".〔See Altick, Richard. ''Punch: The Lively Youth of a British Institution, 1841–1851'' (Ohio State University Press, 1997), 17.〕
Increasing in readership and popularity throughout the remainder of the 1840s and 1850s, ''Punch'' was the success story of a threepenny weekly paper that had become one of the most talked-about and enjoyed periodicals. ''Punch'' enjoyed an audience including Elizabeth Barrett, Robert Browning, Thomas Carlyle, Edward FitzGerald, Charlotte Brontë, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Emily Dickinson, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and James Russell Lowell. ''Punch'' gave several phrases to the English language, including The Crystal Palace, and the "Curate's egg" (first seen in an 1895 cartoon). Several British humour classics were first serialised in ''Punch'', such as the ''Diary of a Nobody'' and ''1066 and All That''. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the artistic roster included Harry Furniss, Linley Sambourne, Francis Carruthers Gould, and Phil May.〔(Punch, or the London Charivari (1841-1992) — A British Institution ), Philip V. Allingham; Contributing Editor, Victorian Web; Faculty of Education, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario.〕 Among the outstanding cartoonists of the following century were Bernard Partridge, H. M. Bateman, Bernard Hollowood who also edited the magazine from 1957 to 1968, Kenneth Mahood and Norman Thelwell.
Circulation broke the 100,000 mark around 1910, and peaked in 1947–1948 at 175,000 to 184,000. Sales declined steadily thereafter; ultimately, the magazine was forced to close in 1992 after 150 years of publication.
''Punch'' was widely emulated worldwide and popular in the colonies. However, the colonial experience, especially in India, also had an impact on Punch and its iconography. Tenniels' ''Punch'' cartoons of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny led to a surge in the magazine's popularity. Colonial India was time and again caricatured in ''Punch'' and can be seen as a significant source for producing knowledge about India (Khanduri 2014).〔Ritu G. Khanduri. (Caricaturing Culture in India: Cartoons and History in the Modern World ). 2014. Cambridge University Press〕

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