Public utility model
| Public utility model ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Public Utility Model (PUM), is an emergency medical service (EMS) system. In a Public Utility Model system, the government is a "purchaser" of dispatchers, emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedic providers from an EMS provider (contractor). In most cases, this is a private (for-profit) ambulance company. In the ownership of a Public Utility Model, the community retains control of EMS system capital assets and accounts receivable through daily oversight. The EMS provider (contractor) manages the day-to-day operations of the service and provides the system with properly trained providers.
The system is designed whereas the government not only regulates and oversees system performance, but the ambulance service contractor is held accountable to meet or exceed performance requirements. These requirements include, but not limited to, time constraints. Such limits are set to ensure an ambulance arrives to life-threatening emergencies without delay. The contractors failure in fulfilling the contractual obligations can result in fines being imposed, up to and including termination of contract. The agreement and contract between government and contractor are done through a competitive bidding process. This insures that the most cost-effective provision of EMS services is guaranteed.
Around 1983 Jack Stout proposed System Status Management in the Denver City and County EMS system. Soon after, he proposed, or was instrumental in developing Public Utility Models, EMS Performance Contracts, and helped design the very first Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) system, specific to EMS needs. This gave communities the ability to monitor and measure the performance of their EMS providers (spurring continuous quality improvement and accountability). From this the response time standards were developed that most PUM's use.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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