João I|Manuel II}}
| leader_title2 = Presidents
| leader_name2 = Manuel de Arriaga |Jorge Sampaio}}
| sovereignty_type = Landmark events
| established_event1=Conquest of Ceuta |established_date1=1415
| established_event2=Sea route to India |established_date2=1498
| established_event3=Discovery of Brazil |established_date3=1500
| established_event4=Iberian Union |established_date4=1580–1640
| established_event5=Anglo-Spanish War|established_date5=1585–1604
| established_event6=Dutch–Portuguese War |established_date6=1588–1654
| established_event7=Restoration War |established_date7=1640–1668
| established_event8= |established_date8=1822
| established_event9= |established_date9=1961
| established_event10=Portuguese Colonial War |established_date10=1961–1974
| established_event11=Carnation Revolution |established_date11=1974–1975
| established_event12=Handover of Macau |established_date12=1999
| established_event13=Independence of East Timor |established_date13=2002
| footnote_a = ^ The capital was ''de facto'' located in Rio de Janeiro from 1808 to 1821.
The Portuguese Empire ((ポルトガル語:Império Português)), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português''), was the first global empire in history. In addition, it was the longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires, spanning almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999 or the grant of sovereignty to East Timor in 2002. The empire spread throughout a vast number of territories that are now parts of 60 different sovereign states.
The first era of the Portuguese empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery. Initiated by the Kingdom of Portugal, it would eventually expand across the globe. Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos in 1418–19, using recent developments in navigation, cartography and maritime technology such as the caravel, in order that they might find a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice trade. In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1498, Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the crown's secret design, Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil on the South American coast.
Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts and factories as they went. By 1571, a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India and South Asia. This commercial network brought great wealth to Portugal.
When Philip II of Spain, I of Portugal, inherited the Portuguese crown in 1580, this began a 60-year union between Spain and Portugal that has since been given the historiographic term of the Iberian Union. Though the realms continued to be administered separately, the Council of Portugal ruled the country and its empire from Madrid. As the King of Spain was also King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain: the Dutch Republic, England, and France. With its smaller population, Portugal was unable to effectively defend its overstretched network of trading posts, and the empire began a long and gradual decline.
Eventually, significant losses to the Dutch in Portuguese India and Southeast Asia during the 17th century brought an end to the Portuguese trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean. Brazil became the most valuable colony of the second era until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century, it broke away in 1822.
The third era represents the final stage of Portuguese colonialism after the decolonization of the Americas of the 1820s. The colonial possessions had been reduced to the African coastline (expanded inland during the Scramble for Africa in the late 19th century), Portuguese Timor, and enclaves in India (Goa) and China (Macau). The disastrous 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa.
Under António Salazar, the Second Portuguese Republic made some ill-fated attempts to hold on to its last remaining colonies and overseas provinces after the 1961 Indian annexation of Goa, embarking on the Portuguese Colonial War in Africa which lasted until the final overthrow of the regime in the Carnation Revolution of 1974. Macau was returned to China in 1999 and East Timor was given independence in 2002.
The origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the ''reconquista'', the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors.
After establishing itself as a separate kingdom in 1139, Portugal completed its reconquest of Moorish territory by reaching Algarve in 1249, but its independence continued to be threatened by neighbouring Castile until the signing of the Treaty of Ayllón in 1411.〔Newitt, pp. 15–17〕
Free from threats to its existence and unchallenged by the wars fought by other European states, Portuguese attention turned overseas and towards a military expedition to the Muslim lands of North Africa. There were several probable motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate (in present-day Morocco). It offered the opportunity to continue the Christian crusade against Islam; to the military class, it promised glory on the battlefield and the spoils of war; and finally, it was also a chance to expand Portuguese trade and to address Portugal's economic decline.〔
In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the terminal ports of the trans-Saharan gold and slave trades. The conquest was a military success, and marked one of the first steps in Portuguese expansion beyond the Iberian Peninsula,〔Abernethy, p. 4〕 but it proved costly to defend against the Muslim forces that soon besieged it. The Portuguese were unable to use it as a base for further expansion into the hinterland, and the trans-Saharan caravans merely shifted their routes to bypass Ceuta and/or used alternative Muslim ports.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』