| Polistes versicolor ： ウィキペディア英語版|
''Polistes versicolor'' is a subtropical social wasp within ''Polistes'', the most common genus of the paper wasp. The most widely distributed South American wasp species, ''Polistes versicolor'' is particularly common in the Southeastern Brazilian states. 〔Zara, Fernando, and Jose Balestieri. "Behavioural Catalogue of ''Polistes versicolor'' Olivier (Vespidae: Polistinae) Post-emergent Colonies." ''Naturalia'' 25 (2000): 301-19. Print. 〕 This social wasp is commonly referred to as the yellow paper wasp due to the distinct yellow bands found on its thorax and abdomen. 〔 Gobbi, Nivar, Fernando B. Noll, and Marcelo A. H. Penna. "‘Winter’ Aggregations, Colony Cycle, and Seasonal Phenotypic Change in the Paper Wasp ''Polistes versicolor'' in Subtropical Brazil." ''Naturwissenschaften'' 93.10 (2006): 487-94. Web. 〕 The ''Polistes versicolor'' nest is often described as a single, uncovered comb attached to the substratum by a single petiole. The yellow wasp is frequently found in urban areas. Its nests, made of chewed vegetable fiber, are often described as a single, uncovered comb attached to the substratum by a single petiole. These new nests and colonies are usually founded by an association of females, sometimes in human constructions. 〔De Oliveira, Simone, Mariana De Castro, and Fabio Prezoto. "Foundation Pattern, Productivity and Colony Success of the Paper Wasp, ''Polistes versicolor''." ''The Journal of Insect Science'' 10 (2010): n. pag. Web.〕 The ''Polistes versicolor'' colony cycle broadly ranges from 3 to 10 months although there appears to be no relationship between the colony's development and the season of the year. While the yellow paper wasps do have clear annual colony cycles, many young queens have the opportunity to hibernate during the winter, forming optional winter aggregations. 〔 Gobbi, Nivar, Fernando B. Noll, and Marcelo A. H. Penna. "‘Winter’ Aggregations, Colony Cycle, and Seasonal Phenotypic Change in the Paper Wasp ''Polistes versicolor'' in Subtropical Brazil." ''Naturwissenschaften'' 93.10 (2006): 487-94. Web. 〕 Dominance hierarchies within these aggregations are characterized by physical aggression of the dominant female(s) towards the associated females who tend to be sisters. 〔 González, J. A., F. S. Nascimento, and S. F. Gayubo. "Observations on the Winter Aggregates of Two Polistine Paper Wasps (Hymenoptera Vespidae Polistinae)." ''Tropical Zoology'' 15.1 (2002): 1-4. Web. 〕 Within the colony, outside of aggressive behaviors, wagging movements are also often used as a form of communication within the colony. 〔 Esch, Harald. "Wagging Movements in the Wasp ''Polistes versicolor'' Vulgaris Bequaert." ''Zeitschrift Fur Vergleichende Physiologie'' 72.3 (1971): 221-25. Web. 〕 The yellow paper wasp is generally a predatory wasp, capturing a wide range of insects, although it often feeds on pollen and honey as well. 〔 Kohler, Andreas. "Floral Preferences of the Polistine Wasp ''Polistes versicolor versicolor'' Olivier, 1792 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Plostinae, Polistini) in Santa Cruz Do Sul, Southern Brazil." ''Biociencias'' 16.2 (2008): n. pag. Web.〕 Therefore, the ''Polistes versicolor'' can be useful as a pollinator or as effective pest control. 〔 Prezoto, Fábio, Helba H. Santos-Prezoto, Vera L.l. Machado, and José C. Zanuncio.
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