| Polistes sulcifer ： ウィキペディア英語版|
''Polistes sulcifer'' is a species of paper wasp in the genus ''Polistes ''that is found in Italy and Croatia. It is one of only three known ''Polistes'' obligate social parasites, sometimes referred to as "cuckoo paper wasps", and its host is the congeneric species ''Polistes dominula''. Because it is an obligate social parasite, this species has lost the ability to build nests, and relies on the host workers to raise its brood.〔Dapporto L, Cervo R, Sledge MF, Turillazzi S (2004) "Rank integration in dominance hierarchies of host colonies by the paper wasp social parasite ''Polistes sulcifer'' (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)". ''J Insect Physiol'' 50 :217–223〕 ''P. sulcifer'' females use brute force, followed by chemical mimicry in order to successfully usurp a host nest and take over as the queen.〔
==Taxonomy and phylogeny==
''Polistes'' is the only genus in the tribe Polistini of the subfamily Polistinae.〔"Polistes." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 2010. Web. 24 Sept. 2014.〕 Species in this subfamily are one of several lineages often known as paper wasps.〔("Paper Wasp" ) Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006.〕 ''Polistes sulcifer'', first named by Zimmerman in 1930, is a member of the monophyletic species group once known as ''Sulcopolistes'',〔Carpenter, James M. "Phylogeny and Biogeography of ''Polistes''." Natural History and Evolution of Paper-wasps. Ed. Stefano Turillazzi and Mary Jane. West-Eberhard. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. 18-57. Print.〕 which contains only three species (the others being ''Polistes atrimandibularis'' and ''Polistes semenowi''〔), all of them obligate social parasites on other ''Polistes'' species.〔 ''P. sulcifer'' was mistakenly thought to be an entirely different genus but was incorporated into ''Polistes'' by Carpenter in 1991. Additionally, this species group is phylogenetically close to ''Polistes dominula'', the only host species of ''P. sulcifer''.〔
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