| Polistes nimpha ： ウィキペディア英語版|
''Polistes nimpha'' is a eusocial paper wasp found all over Europe, with particular sightings in Turkey, Finland, Estonia, and Latvia.〔Pekkarinen, A. "The Polistes Species in Northern Europe (Hymenoptera : Vespidae)." Entomologica Fennica: The Polistes Species in Northern Europe (Hymenoptera : Vespidae) 10.4 (1999): 191-97. Oregon State University. Web.〕〔The Global Biodiversity Information Facility: GBIF Backbone Taxonomy, "GBIF.ORG." Polistes Nimpha (Christ, 1791). N.p., n.d. Web. . .〕 It is also found in northern Africa, Pakistan, Iran, India (especially in the northern states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh), Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China.〔Carpenter, James M. "Distributional Checklist of the Species of the Genus Polistes (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Polistinae, Polistini)." Academia.edu. American Museum Novitates, 31 Dec. 1996. Web.〕 The climate in these areas is relatively cold and snowy in the winter, while summers are usually hot and dry, with steppe vegetation.〔BAGRIACIK, Nil. "Some Structural Features of Nest Materials of Polistes Nimpha (Christ, 1791) in Several Ecological Conditions (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)." http://entomol.org/journal/index.php?journal=JERS&page=article&op=viewFile&path%5B%5D=483&path%5B%5D=285. Nidge University, 2013. Web. .〕 ''Polistes nimpha'' colonies are relatively small and easily manipulated.〔Carpenter, James M. "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Polistes." Academia.edu. N.p., 1996. Web. .〕
==Taxonomy and phylogeny==
The ''Polistes'' genus is known for its morphological and behavioral uniformity. Richards (1973) was the first to propose a global classification of ''Polistes''.〔 The Polistinae has a large tropical distribution and is the most diverse subfamily of the Vespidae. The extensive genus, ''Polistes'', inhabits North America, all the way to Eurasia. The ''Polistes'' genus exhibits a wide range of varying black and yellow color patterns. The ''Polistes nimpha'' is generally more black-patterned than its relative, ''Polistes dominula''. One may distinguish between closely related ''Polistes'' species by comparing the color traits.〔 Wasps of the genus ''Polistes'' (Latreille, 1802) are good examples for studying alternative phenotypes in social insects. Their small colony size, accessible nests, and moderate aggressiveness enable them to be studied comprehensively.〔Rusina, L. Y., A. V. Gilyov, L. A. Firman, I. A. Pekanova, and E. S. Orlova. "Dynamic Stability of Phenotypic Variation in Polistes Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)." RUSSIAN ENTOMOLOGICAL JOURNAL(2011): 321-26. Kherson State University. Web〕
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