| Polistes fuscatus ： ウィキペディア英語版|
''Polistes fuscatus'', whose common name is the golden or northern paper wasp, is widely found throughout southern Canada, the United States, and Central America.〔Metcalf, R.A.; J.C. Marlin; and G. S. Whitt. (1984). Genetics of Speciation within the ''Polistes fuscatus'' Species Complex. ''The Journal of Heredity'' 117-20. Print.〕 It often nests around human development. However, it greatly prefers areas in which wood is readily available for use as nest material, therefore they are also found near and in woodlands and savannas.〔Evans, H. (1963). ''Wasp Farm.'' Ithaca: Cornell University Press.〕 The ''Polistes fuscatus'' is a social wasp that is part of a complex society based around a single dominant queen along with other cofoundresses and a dominance hierarchy.〔
==Taxonomy and phylogeny==
''Polistes fuscatus'' are a part of the order Hymenoptera, the suborder Apocrita, the family of Vespidae, and the subfamily Polistinae, the second largest subfamily within Vespidae, of which all are social wasps.〔Arevalo, Elisabeth, Yong Zhu, James Carpenter, and Joan Strassmann. (2004). The Phylogeny of the Social Wasp Subfamily Polistinae: Evidencefrom Microsatellite Flanking Sequences, Mitochondrial COIsequence, and Morphological Characters. BMC ''Evolutionary Biology'' Web. 21 Sept. 2014. .〕〔Richter, M. Raveret. (2000). Social Wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) Foraging Behavior. ''Annual Review of Entomology'' 121-50. Web. 22 Sept. 2014. .〕 Polistinae comprises four tribes, including Polistini, Epiponini, Mischocyttarini, and Ropalidiini. It is characterized by two major behaviors: colony founding and reproductive dominance.〔 Colony founding can be either independent or swarm founding.〔 Independent founding consists of the founding of small, simple nests that are constructed without a paper envelope by a single or few queens with one or several inseminated egg-layers and no workers. Swarm founding includes the construction of large swarms and are founded by multiple queens with many workers.〔 ''Polistes fuscatus'' is part of the Polistini tribe and in the genus ''Polistes''. ''Polistes'' is one of the five independent-founding groups. A study in which bootstrap analysis was conducted indicated that ''Polistes fuscatus'' is part of the new world subgenera: ''Fuscopolistes''. In addition to ''Polistes fuscatus'', within fuscopolistes are ''Polistes bellicosus'', ''Polistes apaches'', ''Polistes aurifer'', ''Polistes Carolina'', ''Polistes dorsalis'', and ''Polistes metricus'', all of which are the closest relatives to ''Polistes fuscatus''.〔
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