| Polistes exclamans ： ウィキペディア英語版|
''Polistes exclamans'' is a social wasp and is part of the family Vespidae of the order Hymenoptera. It is found throughout the United States, Mexico, the Bahamas and parts of Canada.〔〔 Due to its solitary nesting behavior, ''P. exclamans'' has extended its range in the past few decades and now covers the eastern half of the United States, as well as part of the north. This expansion is typically attributed to changing global climate and temperatures. ''P. exclamans'' has three specific castes, including males, workers, and queens, but the dominance hierarchy is further distinguished by age. The older the wasp is, the higher it is in ranking within the colony. In most ''P. exclamans'' nests, there is one queen who lays all the eggs in the colony. The physiological similarities between the worker and queen castes have led to experiments attempting to distinguish the characteristics of these two castes and how they are determined, though males have easily identifiable physiological characteristics. Since ''P. exclamans'' live in relatively small, open combed nests, they are often subject to predators and parasites, such as ''Chalcoela iphitalis'', ''Elasmus polistes'', and birds. ''P. exclamans'' have defense and recognition strategies that help protect against these predators and parasites.
==Taxonomy and phylogeny==
''Polistes exclamans'' is part of subfamily Polistinae within the hymenopteran family Vespidae.〔Arevalo, Elisabeth, Yong Zhu, James Carpenter, and Joan Strassmann. "The Phylogeny of the Social Wasp Subfamily Polistinae: Evidencefrom Microsatellite Flanking Sequences, Mitochondrial COIsequence, and Morphological Characters." BMC Evolutionary Biology (2004). Web. 21 Sept. 2014. 〕 Polistinae (paper wasps) is the second largest of six vespid subfamilies, containing around 950 species, and is composed entirely of social wasps. It is made up of four tribes; ''P. exclamans'' is part of Polistini.〔 Genus ''Polistes'' is currently split into four subgenera that are distributed across the world; ''P. exclamans'' is a part of the New World subgenus ''Aphanilopterus'' and is most closely related to ''P. annularis'', ''P. buysonni'', ''P. canadensis'', ''P. lanio'', ''P. cavapyta'', ''P. simillimus'', ''P. crinitus'', ''P. versicolor'', and ''P. instabilis''.〔
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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