| Polistes dominula ： ウィキペディア英語版|
The European paper wasp (''Polistes dominula'', often misspelled as ''dominulus'') is one of the more common and well-known species of social wasps in the genus'' Polistes''. Its diet is more diverse than that of most ''Polistes'' species (many genera of insects versus mainly caterpillars in other ''Polistes''), making it superior over many others during the shortage of resources. The dominant females (queens) are the principal egg layers, while the subordinate females ("auxiliaries") primarily forage and do not lay eggs. This hierarchy is not permanent, though; when the queen (alpha-female) is removed from the nest, the second-most dominant female (beta-female) displaces the role of the previous queen. Dominance in females is determined by the severity of the scatteredness in the coloration of the clypeus (face), whereas dominance in males is shown by the variation of spots of their abdomens. ''P. dominula'' is far from being extinct or even being in danger due to their exceptional survival features such as productive colony cycle, short development time, and higher ability to endure predator attacks.
These wasps have a lek-based mating system. Unlike most social insects, 35% of ''P. dominula'' wasps in a colony are unrelated. It is considered an invasive species in Canada and the United States.
The European paper wasp was originally described in 1791 by Johann Ludwig Christ as ''Vespa dominula''. The specific epithet ''ラテン語:dominula'' is a noun meaning "little mistress", and following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, species epithets which are nouns do not change when a species is placed in a different genus. Authors who were unaware that ''dominula'' was a noun have misspelled the species name as "dominulus" for decades. Another cause of the confusion in the species' name was the ambiguous distinction between masculine and feminine genitive nouns.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://eol.org/oages/344/overview )〕 ''P. dominula'' is often referred to as the European paper wasp because of its native distribution and its nests, which are constructed from paper and saliva. It is also frequently referred to in older literature as ''Polistes gallicus'', a separate species with which it was often confused.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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