| Polistes carnifex ： ウィキペディア英語版|
''Polistes carnifex'' is a neotropical vespid wasp in the cosmopolitan genus ''Polistes'' and is native to Central and South America. It is a small, yellow and brown social insect that establishes small colonies which build papery nests under the eaves of buildings or suspended from branches.〔 The colonies are often founded by solitary queens, many times in the form of winter aggregations to wait until environmental conditions are more suitable for building a colony.〔Gobbi, N., Noll, F.B., and Penna, M.A. (2006). "Winter" aggregations, colony cycle, and seasonal phenotypic change in the paper wasp ''Polistes versicolor'' in subtropical Brazil (). Naturwissenschaften, 93(10),487-94.〕 Not all nests have a female with developed ovaries.〔 Foraging adults bring nectar and small caterpillars back to the nest to feed to the developing larvae which are individually housed in separate cells in the nest.〔 Evolutionary adaptations include mandibles and teeth. Worker-queen conflict, worker policing, and dominance interactions all come into play for the species. ''Polistes carnifex'' is territorial and is parasitized.
== Taxonomy and phylogeny ==
''Polistes carnifex'' belongs to the ''Polistes'' genus, which is the largest genus in the Vespidae family and the only genus in the Polistini tribe.〔Morgan Jackson. (2012, October 26). Taxonomic adventures in the world of paper wasps (''Polistes'', Vespidae) (log comment ). Retrieved from http://escsecblog.com/2012/10/26/taxonomic-adventures-in-the-world-of-paper-wasps-polistes-vespidae/〕 ''Polistes carnifex ''is a species of paper wasp and, as like other members of the subfamily Polistinae, is a eusocial wasp.〔 One of the hypothesized phylogenetic trees puts ''Polistes carnifex'' most closely related to ''Polistes major'' and more distantly related to the following species: ''Polistes apachus'', ''Polistes aurifer'', ''Polistes bellicosus'', ''Polistes carolina'', ''Polistes metricus'', ''Polistes poeyi haitiensis'', and ''Polistes perplexus''.〔Pickett, K. M., Carpenter, J. M. & Wheeler, W. C. (2006). Systematics of ''Polistes'' (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), with a phylogenetic consideration of Hamilton’s haplodiploidy hypothesis. Ann. Zool. Fennici, 43, 390-406.〕 However, there has not been a consensus with regard to the phylogeny of ''Polistes carnifex'' so no one phylogenetic tree can be termed correct.〔
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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