| Polistes biglumis ： ウィキペディア英語版|
''Polistes biglumis'' is a species of social wasp within ''Polistes'', the most common genus of paper wasp. It is distinguished mainly by its tendency to reside in montane climates in meadows or alpine areas. Selection pressure from the wasp's environment has led to several idiosyncrasies of its behavior and life cycle with respect to its relative species in the genus ''Polistes''. It alone among paper wasps is often polyandrous. In addition, it has a truncated nesting season that gives rise to unique competitive dynamics among females of the species. ''P. biglumis'' wasps utilize an odor based recognition system that is the basis for all wasp to wasp interaction of the species. The wasp's life cycle is highly intertwined with that of ''Polistes atrimandibularis'', an obligate social parasite wasp that frequently invades the combs of ''P. biglumis'' wasps.〔Lorenzi, M. C., and S. Turillazzi. "Behavioural and Ecological Adaptations to the High Mountain Environment of Polistes Biglumis Bimaculatus." ''Ecological Entomology'' 11.2 (1986): 199-204. Print.〕
==Taxonomy and phylogeny==
The Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus described ''Polistes biglumis'' in 1758.〔Lorenzi, M. C. "Social Wasp Parasites Affect the Nestmate Recognition Abilities of Their Hosts ( Polistes Atrimandibularis and P. Biglumis , Hymenoptera, Vespidae)." ''Insectes Sociaux'' 50.1 (2003): 82-87. ''Springer Link.'' Web. 24 Sept. 2014. .〕 Its species name biglumis is a Latin phrase meaning "two husks." While no common name for the wasp exists in English, it is referred to as "berg feldwespe" in German (meaning "mountain field wasp"). ''P. biglumis'' has been studied alongside ''Polistes snelleni'' and ''Polistes chinensis'' for comparison. ''P. biglumis'' was originally classified as a hornet in the genus ''Vespa'' but was reassigned to the genus ''Polistes'', which is the largest genus of paper wasps in the family Vespidae.〔Neumeyer, Rainer, Hannes Baur, Gaston-Denis Guex, and Christophe Praz. "A New Species of the Paper Wasp Genus Polistes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) in Europe Revealed by Morphometrics and Molecular Analyses." ''Zookeys 400'' (2014): 67-118. 11 Apr. 2014. Web. 23 Sept. 2014. .〕
This species resides mainly in mountainous zones in Southern Europe, and it is the only paper wasp that inhabits a mountainous clime. Due to its divergence from the more common temperate climes of its genus, it has developed several distinctions from other paper wasps that arise mainly from selective pressure due to the severe climate it commonly experiences. The climate shortens the nesting season of ''P. biglumis'' to around four months. In addition, the nests exhibit darker coloration, which allows them to absorb more heat from the sun.〔 Workers are also often nonexistent in some populations of ''P. biglumis'', which demonstrates a large dichotomy from other social wasps, whose most commonly seen specimens are the workers. Finally, because of the reduced nesting season as well as parasitism by other wasps, ''P. biglumis'' has developed nesting strategies that are both distinct from other paper wasps and variable among conspecific populations.〔Fucini, S., V. Di Bona, F. Mola, C. Piccaluga, and M.C. Lorenzi. "Social Wasps without Workers: Geographic Variation of Caste Expression in the Paper Wasp Polistes Biglumis." ''Insectes Sociaux ''56.4 (2009): 347-58.'' Springer Link.'' Web. 24 Sept. 2014. .〕
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