The Yugoslav Partisans〔Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: ''Partizani,'' Партизани〕 or the National Liberation Army,〔 (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); (マケドニア語:Народноослободителна војска) (НОВ); (スロベニア語:Narodnoosvobodilna vojska) (NOV)〕 officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,〔 (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); (マケドニア語:Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија) (НОВ и ПОЈ); (スロベニア語:Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije) (NOV in POJ)〕 was Europe's most effective anti-Nazi resistance movement, often compared to the Polish resistance movement, albeit the latter was an exceptional, non-communist autonomic movement.〔Jeffreys-Jones, R. (2013): (In Spies We Trust: The Story of Western Intelligence ), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-958097-2〕〔Adams, Simon (2005): (The Balkans ), Black Rabbit Books, ISBN 978-1-58340-603-8〕 The Yugoslav Resistance was led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II. Its commander was Marshal Josip Broz Tito.
One of two objectives of the movement, which was the military arm of the Unitary National Liberation Front (UNOF) coalition, led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ) and represented by the AVNOJ (Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia), the Yugoslav wartime deliberative assembly, was to fight the occupying forces. Until British supplies began to arrive in appreciable quantities in 1944, the occupiers were the only source of arms.〔(Basil Davidson: PARTISAN PICTURE )〕
The other objective was to create a federal multi-ethnic communist state in Yugoslavia.〔Tomasevich 2001, p. 96.〕 To this end, the KPJ attempted to appeal to all the various ethnic groups within Yugoslavia, by preserving the rights of each group.
The objectives of the rival resistance movement which emerged some weeks earlier, the Chetniks, were the retention of the Yugoslav monarchy, ensuring the safety of ethnic Serbian populations,〔Milazzo (1975), pp. 30–31〕〔Roberts (1973), p. 48〕 and the establishment of a Greater Serbia〔Tomasevich (1975), pp.166–178〕 through the ethnic cleansing of non-Serbs from territories they considered rightfully and historically Serbian.〔Banac (1996), p.143
"From the summer of 1941, the Chetniks increasingly gained control over Serb insurgents and carried out gruesome crimes against Muslims of eastern Bosnia-Herzegovina. Massacres of Muslims, usually by cutting the throats of the victims and tossing the bodies into various water-ways, occurred especially in eastern Bosnia, in Foča, Goražde, Čajniče, Rogatica, Višegrad, Vlasenica, Srebrenica, all in the basin of the Drina river, but also in eastern Herzegovina, where individual villages resisted Serb encirclement with ferocious determination until 1942. Chetnik documents – for example the minutes of the Chetnik conference in Javorine, district of Kotor Varoš, in June 1942 – speak of a determination to 'cleanse Bosnia of everything that is not Serb'. It is difficult to estimate the number of Muslim victims of this original ethnic cleansing, but it can be counted in the tens of thousands."〕〔Hirsch (2002), p.76〕〔Mulaj (2008), p.71〕〔Velikonja (2003), p. 166〕 Relations between the two movements were uneasy from the start, but from October 1941 they degenerated into full-scale conflict. To the Chetniks, Tito's pan-ethnic policies seemed anti-Serbian, whereas the Chetniks' royalism was anathema to the communists.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Partisans: War in the Balkans 1941–1945 )〕 In the early part of the war Partisan forces were predominantly composed of Serbs and given to the persecution of Muslims (e.g. the slaughter of Muslim women and children in April 1942 in Herzegovina). In that period names of Muslim and Croat commanders of Partisan forces had to be changed to protect them from their predominantly Serb colleagues.
By late 1944, the total forces of the Partisans numbered 650,000 men and women organized in four field armies and 52 divisions, which engaged in conventional warfare. By April 1945, the Partisans numbered over 800,000.
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