The Pannonian Basin or Carpathian Basin is a large basin in East-Central Europe.
The geomorphological term Pannonian Plain is more widely used for roughly the same region though with a somewhat different sense - meaning only the lowlands, the plain that remained when the Pliocene ''Pannonian Sea'' dried out.
It is a geomorphological subsystem of the Alps-Himalaya system. Most of the plain consists of the Great Hungarian Plain (in the south and east, including the Eastern Slovak Lowland) and the Little Hungarian Plain (in the northwest), divided by the Transdanubian Mountains.
The Pannonian Basin is situated in the southeastern part of Central Europe, or at the boundary between Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (Balkans).
It forms a topographically discrete unit set in the European landscape, surrounded by imposing geographic boundaries - the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps, the Dinarides and the Balkan mountains. The Rivers Danube and Tisza divide the basin roughly in half. It extends roughly between Vienna in the northwest, Zagreb in the southwest, Belgrade in the southeast and Satu Mare in the northeast.
In terms of modern state boundaries, the basin is centred in the territory of Hungary, but it also extends to Northern Serbia, Central Croatia and Slavonia, western Slovakia, the Eastern Slovak Lowland (including the southwestern tip of Ukraine), besides the border regions of northern Bosnia and Herzegovina, some western portions of Romania, and the eastern tips of Slovenia and Austria. The name "Pannonian" is taken from that of Pannonia, a province of the Roman Empire. Only Western part of the territory of modern Hungary (the so-called Transdanubia) was part of the ancient Pannonia province, which is less than 29% of modern Hungary, therefore Hungarian geographers avoid the Pannonian Basin and Pannonian Plain terms.
In English, the terms "Pannonian Basin" and "Carpathian Basin" are used synonymously.
The name "Pannonian" is taken from that of Pannonia, a province of the Roman Empire. The historical province overlapped but was not coterminous with the geographical plain or basin. Pannonia Inferior covered much of the western half of the basin, as far as the Danube. Pannonia Superior included the western fringe of the basin as well as part of the Eastern Alps, as far as Virunum. The southern fringe of the basin was in Dalmatia and Moesia. The eastern half of the basin was not conquered by the Romans, and was considered part of Sarmatia, inhabited by the Iazyges. Likewise, the parts north of the Danube (now in western Slovakia) were not in the empire; they were considered part of Germania, inhabited by the Quadi.
The term ''Pannonian Plain'' refers to the lowland parts of the Pannonian Basin as well as those of some adjoining regions like Lower Austria, Moravia, Bosnia. The lands adjoining the plain proper are sometimes also called ''peri-Pannonian''.
The term ''Carpathian Basin'' is used in Hungarian literature, while the South Slavic languages, Slovak, Romanian and German use ''Pannonian'':
In Hungarian, the basin is known as ''Kárpát-medence'', in Serbian and Bosnian as ''Панонски басен/ Panonski basen'' and ''Panonska nizija'', in Croatian as ''Panonska nizina'', in Slovak as ''Panónska kotlina'', in Slovenian as ''Panonska kotlina'' and in German as ''Pannonisches Becken'', in Romanian as ''Câmpia Panonică'' or ''Bazinul Panonic''.
In Hungarian geographical literature various subdivisions of the Carpathian Mountains (Inner Western Carpathians, Inner Eastern Carpathians, Southern Carpathians, Western Carpathians and Transylvanian Plateau) are also considered parts of the Carpathian Basin on the basis of traditional geopolitical divisions.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』