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Pan (mythology) : ウィキペディア英語版
Pan (god)

In Greek religion and mythology, Pan (;〔("Pan" (''Greek mythology'') ) entry in ''Collins English Dictionary'', HarperCollins Publishers, 1998.〕 , ''Pan'') is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds and rustic music, and companion of the nymphs.〔Edwin L. Brown, "The Lycidas of Theocritus ''Idyll'' 7", ''Harvard Studies in Classical Philology'', 1981:59–100.〕 His name originates within the Ancient Greek language, from the word ''paein'' (πάειν), meaning "to pasture."〔Edwin L. Brown, "The Divine Name 'Pan'" ''Transactions of the American Philological Association'' 107 (1977:57–61), notes (p. 59) that the first inscription mentioning Pan is a 6th-century dedication to ΠΑΟΝΙ, a "still uncontracted" form.〕 He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr. With his homeland in rustic Arcadia, he is also recognized as the god of fields, groves, and wooded glens; because of this, Pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring. The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism.〔Alfred Wagner, ''Das historische Drama der Griechen'', Münster 1878, p. 78.〕

In Roman religion and myth, Pan's counterpart was Faunus, a nature god who was the father of Bona Dea, sometimes identified as Fauna; he was also closely associated with Sylvanus, due to their similar relationships with woodlands. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Pan became a significant figure in the Romantic movement of western Europe and also in the 20th-century Neopagan movement.〔''The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft'', Ronald Hutton, chapter 3〕
An area in the Golan Heights known as the Panion or Panium is associated with Pan. The city of Caesarea Philippi, the site of the Battle of Panium and the Banias natural spring, grotto or cave, and related shrines dedicated to Pan, may be found there.
In his earliest appearance in literature, Pindar's Pythian Ode iii. 78, Pan is associated with a mother goddess, perhaps Rhea or Cybele; Pindar refers to virgins worshipping Cybele and Pan near the poet's house in Boeotia.〔. See note 5 to Pythian Ode III, "For Heiron of Syracuse, Winner in the Horse-race."〕

The parentage of Pan is unclear;〔W. H. Roscher, ''Ausführliches Lexikon der Gr. u. Röm. Mythologie'' (1909:1379f) finds eighteen variants for Pan's genealogy.〕 generally he is the son of Hermes, although occasionally in some myths he is the son of Zeus, or Dionysus, with whom his mother is said to be a nymph, sometimes Dryope or, even in the 5th-century AD source ''Dionysiaca'' by Nonnus (14.92), Penelope of Mantineia in Arcadia. In some early sources such as Pindar, his father is Apollo via Penelope, the wife of Odysseus.〔Pindar, Fr. 90 (Bowra)〕 Herodotus (2.145), Cicero (''ND'' 3.22.56), Apollodorus (7.38) and Hyginus (''Fabulae'' 224) all make Hermes and Penelope his parents. Pausanias 8.12.5 records the story that Penelope had in fact been unfaithful to her husband, who banished her to Mantineia upon his return. Other sources (Duris of Samos; the Vergilian commentator Servius) report that Penelope slept with all 108 suitors in Odysseus' absence, and gave birth to Pan as a result.〔(Footnote in the ''Library'' by Apollodorus (of Athens), edited by E. Capps Ph.D, LL.D.; T. E. Page, Litt.D.; W. H. D. Rouse, Litt.d.; Webster Collection of Social Anthropology, p. 305 )〕 This myth reflects the folk etymology that equates Pan's name (Πάν) with the Greek word for "all" (πᾶν).〔The Homeric Hymn to Pan provides the earliest example of this wordplay, suggesting that Pan's name was born from the fact that he delighted "all" the gods.〕 It is more likely to be cognate with πάειν ''paein'', "to pasture", and to share an origin with the modern English word "pasture". In 1924, Hermann Collitz suggested that Greek Pan and Indic Pushan might have a common Indo-European origin.〔H. Collitz, "Wodan, Hermes und Pushan," ''Festskrift tillägnad Hugo Pipping pȧ hans sextioȧrsdag den 5 November 1924'' 1924, pp 574–587.〕〔R. S. P. Beekes, ''Etymological Dictionary of Greek'', Brill, 2009, p. 1149.〕 In the mystery cults of the highly syncretic Hellenistic era〔Eliade, Mircea (1982) ''A History of Religious Ideas'' Vol. 2. University of Chicago Press. § 205.〕 Pan is made cognate with Phanes/Protogonos, Zeus, Dionysus and Eros.〔In the second-century "Hieronyman Theogony', which harmonized Orphic themes from the theogony of Protogonos with Stoicism, he is Protogonos, Phanes, Zeus and Pan; in the Orphic Rhapsodies he is additionally called Metis, Eros, Erikepaios and Bromios. The inclusion of Pan seems to be a Hellenic syncretization (West, M. L. (1983) The Orphic Poems. Oxford:Oxford University Press. p. 205).〕
The Roman Faunus, a god of Indo-European origin, was equated with Pan. However, accounts of Pan's genealogy are so varied that it must lie buried deep in mythic time. Like other nature spirits, Pan appears to be older than the Olympians, if it is true that he gave Artemis her hunting dogs and taught the secret of prophecy to Apollo. Pan might be multiplied as the Pans (Burkert 1985, III.3.2; Ruck and Staples, 1994, p. 132〔Pan "even boasted that he had slept with every maenad that ever was—to facilitate that extraordinary feat, he could be multiplied into a whole brotherhood of Pans."〕) or the ''Paniskoi''. Kerenyi (p. 174) notes from scholia that Aeschylus in ''Rhesus'' distinguished between two Pans, one the son of Zeus and twin of Arcas, and one a son of Cronus. "In the retinue of Dionysos, or in depictions of wild landscapes, there appeared not only a great Pan, but also little Pans, Paniskoi, who played the same part as the Satyrs".

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