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The Palestinian people ((アラビア語:الشعب الفلسطيني), ''ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī''), also referred to as Palestinians ((アラビア語:الفلسطينيون), ''al-Filasṭīniyyūn'', ), are an ethnic group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab due to Arabization of the region.〔'Palestinians are an indigenous people who either live in, or originate from, historical Palestine... Although the Muslims guaranteed security and allowed religious freedom to all inhabitants of the region, the majority converted to Islam and adopted Arab culture.' Bassam Abu-Libdeh, Peter D. Turnpenny, and Ahmed Teebi, ‘Genetic Disease in Palestine and Palestinians,’ in Dhavendra Kuma (ed.) ''Genomics and Health in the Developing World,'' OUP 2012 pp.700-711, p.700.〕〔David Ben-Gurion and Yitzhak Ben-Zvi claimed that the population at the time of the Arab conquest was mainly Christian, of Jewish origins, which underwent conversion to avoid a tax burden, basing their argument on 'the fact that at the time of the Arab conquest, the population of Palestine was mainly Christian, and that during the Crusaders’ conquest some four hundred years later, it was mainly Muslim. As neither the Byzantines nor the Muslims carried out any large-scale population resettlement projects, the Christians were the offspring of the Jewish and Samaritan farmers who converted to Christianity in the Byzantine period; while the Muslim fellaheen in Palestine in modern times are descendants of those Christians who were the descendants of Jews, and had turned to Islam before the Crusaders’ conquest.’ Moshe Gil, ''A History of Palestine,634-1099'' Cambridge University Press, (1983) 1997 pp.222-3〕〔'The process of Arabization and Islamization was gaining momentum there. It was one of the mainstays of Umayyad power and was important in their struggle against both Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula.... Conversions arising from convenience as well as conviction then increased. These conversions to Islam, together with a steady tribal inflow from the desert, changed the religious character of Palestine’s inhabitants. The predominantly Christian population gradually became predominantly Muslim and Arabic-speaking. At the same time, during the early years of Muslim control of the city, a small permanent Jewish population returned to Jerusalem after a 500-year absence.' Encyclopedia Britannica, ''Palestine'',('From the Arab Conquest to 1900,' ).〕〔〔'While population transfers were effected in the Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian periods, most of the indigenous population remained in place. Moreover, after Jerusalem was destroyed in AD 70 the population by and large remained ''in situ,'' and did so again after Bar Kochba's revolt in AD 135. When the vast majority of the population became Christian during the Byzantine period, no vast number were driven out, and similarly in the seventh century, when the vast majority became Muslim, few were driven from the land. Palestine has been multi-cultural and multi ethnic from the beginning, as one can read between the lines even in the biblical narrative. Many Palestinian Jews became Christians, and in turn Muslims. Ironically, many of the forebears of Palestinian Arab refugees may well have been Jewish.'Michael Prior,''Zionism and the State of Israel: A Moral Inquiry,'' Psychology Press 1999 p.201〕〔'the word 'Arab' needs to be used with care. It is applicable to the Bedouin and to a section of the urban and effendi classes; it is inappropriate as a description of the rural mass of the population, the fellaheen. The whole population spoke Arabic, usually corrupted by dialects bearing traces of words of other origin, but it was only the Bedouin who habitually thought of themselves as Arabs. Western travelers from the sixteenth century onwards make the same distinction, and the word 'Arab' almost always refers to them exclusively. . .Gradually it was realized that there remained a substantial stratum of the pre-Israelite peasantry, and that the oldest element among the peasants were not 'Arabs' in the sense of having entered the country with or after the conquerors of the seventh century, had been there already when the Arabs came.' James Parkes, ''Whose Land? A History of the Peoples of Palestine,''(1949) rev.ed.Penguin, 1970 pp.209-210.〕 Despite various wars and exoduses (such as that in 1948), roughly one half of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in historic Palestine, the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Israel. In this combined area, as of 2004, Palestinians constituted 49% of all inhabitants, encompassing the entire population of the Gaza Strip (1.6 million), the majority of the population of the West Bank (approximately 2.3 million versus close to 500,000 Jewish Israeli citizens which includes about 200,000 in East Jerusalem), and 16.5% of the population of Israel proper as Arab citizens of Israel.〔Alan Dowty, (Critical issues in Israeli society ), Greenwood (2004), p. 110〕 Many are Palestinian refugees or internally displaced Palestinians, including more than a million in the Gaza Strip, three-quarters of a million in the West Bank, and about a quarter of a million in Israel proper. Of the Palestinian population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian diaspora, more than half are stateless lacking citizenship in any country. 3.24 million of the diaspora population live in neighboring Jordan where they make up approximately half the population, 1.5 million live between Syria and Lebanon, a quarter of a million in Saudi Arabia, with Chile's half a million representing the largest concentration outside the Arab world.
The history of a distinct Palestinian national identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars.〔 Legal historian Assaf Likhovski states that the prevailing view is that Palestinian identity originated in the early decades of the 20th century. "Palestinian" was used to refer to the nationalist concept of a Palestinian people by the Arabs of Palestine in a limited way until World War I.〔〔 The first demand for national independence of the Levant was issued by the Syrian–Palestinian Congress on 21 September 1921.〔Porath, 1974, p. 117. "On 21st September, after twenty-six days of discussion, the joint Syrian-Palestinian Congress issued a public statement to the League of Nations demanding: 1) Recognition of the independence and national rule (al-Sultan al-Qawmi) of Syria, Lebanon and Palestine"〕 After the creation of the State of Israel, the exodus of 1948, and more so after the exodus of 1967, the term came to signify not only a place of origin, but also the sense of a shared past and future in the form of a Palestinian state. According to Rashid Khalidi, the Palestinian nationalism developed a historiography that "anachronistically read back into the history of Palestine over the past few centuries, and even millennia, a nationalist consciousness and identity that are in fact relatively modern.". The modern Palestinian people now understand their identity as encompassing the heritage of all ages from biblical times up to the Ottoman period.〔
Founded in 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is an umbrella organization for groups that represent the Palestinian people before the international community. The Palestinian National Authority, officially established as a result of the Oslo Accords, is an interim administrative body nominally responsible for governance in Palestinian population centers in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Palestinian Authority definition )〕 Since 1978, the United Nations has observed an annual International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People.
The Greek toponym ''Palaistínē'' (Παλαιστίνη), with which the Arabic ''Filastin'' (فلسطين) is cognate, first occurs in the work of the 5th century BCE Greek historian Herodotus, where it denotes generally〔With the exception of Bks. 1, 105; 3.91.1, and 4.39, 2.〕 the coastal land from Phoenicia down to Egypt.〔Herodotus describes its scope in the Fifth Satrapy of the Persians as follows: "From the town of Posidium, () on the border between Cilicia and Syria, as far as Egypt – omitting Arabian territory, which was free of tax, came 350 talents. This province contains the whole of Phoenicia and that part of Syria which is called Palestine, and Cyprus. This is the fifth Satrapy." (from Herodotus Book 3, 8th logos).()〕〔Cohen, 2006, p. 36.〕
Herodotus also employs the term as an ethnonym, as when he speaks of the 'Syrians of Palestine' or 'Palestinian-Syrians',〔Herodotus, ''The Histories'', Bks. 2:104 (Φοἰνικες δἐ καὶ Σὐριοι οἱ ἑν τᾔ Παλαιστἰνῃ); 3:5; 7:89.〕 an ethnically amorphous group he distinguishes from the Phoenicians.〔Kasher, 1990, p. 15.〕〔David Asheri, ''A Commentary on Herodotus, Books 1-4,'' Oxford University Press,2007 p.402:"'the Syrians called Palestinians', at the time of Herodotus were a mixture of Phoenicians, Philistines, Arabs, Egyptians, and perhaps also other peoples. . . Perhaps the circumcised 'Syrians called Palestinians' are the Arabs and Egyptians of the Sinai coast; at the time of Herodotus there were few Jews in the coastal area."〕 Herodotus makes no distinction between the Jews and other inhabitants of Palestine.〔W.W. How, J.Wells (eds.''A Commentary on Herodotus,'' Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1928, vol.1 p.219.〕 The Greek word bears comparison to a congeries of ancient ethnonyms and toponyms. In Ancient Egyptian ''Peleset/Purusati''〔''pwlɜsɜtj''.John Strange, ''Caphtor/Keftiu: a new investigation,'' Brill, 1980 p. 159.〕 has been conjectured to refer to the "Sea Peoples".〔. Quote: "First coined in 1881 by the French Egyptologist G. Maspero (1896), the somewhat misleading term "Sea Peoples" encompasses the ethnonyms Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Teresh, Eqwesh, Denyen, Sikil / Tjekker, Weshesh, and Peleset (Philistines). (The modern term "Sea Peoples" refers to peoples that appear in several New Kingdom Egyptian texts as originating from "islands" (tables 1-2; Adams and Cohen, this volume; see, e.g., Drews 1993, 57 for a summary). The use of quotation marks in association with the term "Sea Peoples" in our title is intended to draw attention to the problematic nature of this commonly used term. It is noteworthy that the designation "of the sea" appears only in relation to the Sherden, Shekelesh, and Eqwesh. Subsequently, this term was applied somewhat indiscriminately to several additional ethnonyms, including the Philistines, who are portrayed in their earliest appearance as invaders from the north during the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses Ill (see, e.g., Sandars 1978; Redford 1992, 243, n. 14; for a recent review of the primary and secondary literature, see Woudhuizen 2006). Hencefore the term Sea Peoples will appear without quotation marks. )"〕〔(The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. 1200 B.C., Robert Drews, p48–61 ) Quote: "The thesis that a great "migration of the Sea Peoples" occurred ca. 1200 B.C. is supposedly based on Egyptian inscriptions, one from the reign of Merneptah and another from the reign of Ramesses III. Yet in the inscriptions themselves such a migration nowhere appears. After reviewing what the Egyptian texts have to say about 'the sea peoples', one Egyptologist (Wolfgang Helck) recently remarked that although some things are unclear, "eins ist aber sicher: Nach den agyptischen Texten haben wir es nicht mit einer 'Volkerwanderung' zu tun." Thus the migration hypothesis is based not on the inscriptions themselves but on their interpretation."〕 Among Semitic languages, Assyrian ''Palastu'' generally refers to an undefined area.〔Thomas L.Thompson, 'Introduction:Can a History of Ancient Jerusalem and Palestine be written?,' in T.L. Thompson (ed.) ''Jerusalem In Ancient History And Tradition,'' Continuum Publishing, 2003, pp. 1-15, pp. 3-4.〕 Biblical Hebrew's cognate word ''Plištim'', is usually translated Philistines.〔Strange 1980 p.159.〕
''Syria Palestina'' continued to be used by historians and geographers and others to refer to the area between the Mediterranean sea and the Jordan river, as in the writings of Philo, Josephus and Pliny the Elder. After the Romans adopted the term as the official administrative name for the region in the 2nd century CE, "Palestine" as a stand-alone term came into widespread use, printed on coins, in inscriptions and even in rabbinic texts.〔Cohen, 2006, p. 37.〕 The Arabic word ''Filastin'' has been used to refer to the region since the time of the earliest medieval Arab geographers. It appears to have been used as an Arabic adjectival noun in the region since as early as the 7th century CE.〔Kish, 1978, p. 200.〕 The Arabic language newspaper ''Filasteen'' (est. 1911), published in Jaffa by Issa and Yusef al-Issa, addressed its readers as "Palestinians".〔(【引用サイトリンク】publisher=PASSIA: Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs )〕
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